Book

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Notes

 

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Fraser, J., Waters, D., Forster, E. M., & Brown, N. (2014). Paediatric nursing in Australia: Principles for practice. Port Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.

Grant, P. R., & Grant, B. R. (2008). How and why species multiply: The radiation of Darwin’s finches. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Notes

In-text Citations

  • There are a number of different ways to cite multiple authors. For a list of examples on how to write first citations and subsequent citations for works with multiple authors please go to Style Notes - Authors.

Reference List

  • For 2-7 authors: include all authors' names, for example:

Gazda, G. M., Balzer, F. J., Childers, W. C., Nealy, A. U., Phelps, R. E., & Walters, R. P.

  • For 8 or more authors: include the names of the first 6 authors, followed by three ellipses (...), then add the final author's name. For example:

Boettcher, S., Wacker, A., Moerike, K., Kopp, H. G., Jaschonek, K., Grobosch, T., ... Salih, H.R.

Reference list

Title of work. (Year). Location: Publisher.

The life of insects. (1979). Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett.

Notes
  • In cases where no identified individual is given authorship credit for the work, move the title to the author position.
  • In instances where another book has the same title, publisher, place of publication and year, the series title should precede the volume name to differentiate them, for example:

In text:

(Lippincott Manual, 2008, pg. 11).

(LPN Expert Guides, 2008, pg. 12).

Reference List:

Lippincott manual of nursing practice series: ECG interpretation. (2008). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

LPN experts guides: ECG interpretation. (2008). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (x ed.). Location: Publisher.

Stallings, W. (2007). Data and computer communications (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Notes
  • If there is no edition listed on the book, it is considered a first edition. There is no need to add an edition statement for a first edition
Reference list

Author, A. A. (Yeara). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Elkind, D. (2007a). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong.

Author, A. A. (Yearb). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Elkind, D. (2007b). The power of play: How spontaneous, imaginative activities lead to happier, healthier children. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong.

Notes
  • For works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) arrange the references in the reference list alphabetically by author and then alphabetically by title.
  • Suffixes a, b, c etc are then added to the publication year.
  • Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list,  e.g. Elkind (2007b)... then later in the text... (Elkind, 2007a)... and so on.
Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Eysenck, M. W. (2006). Fundamentals of cognition. Hove, England: Psychology Press.

Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Fundamentals of psychology. London, England: Psychology Press.

Notes
  • In-text references - when you include two or more works by the same author within the same parentheses, you should arrange the in-text references by year of publication. Give the authors' surname once and for each subsequent work give only the date e.g. (Smith, 2002, 2004).
  • Reference list - arrange two or more works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) by year of publication (earliest first). Place in-press references last.
Reference list

Author, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Boag, S. (Ed.). (2008). Personality down under: Perspectives from Australia. New York, NY: Nova Science.

Guzys, D., & Petrie, E. (Eds.). (2014). An introduction to community and primary health care. Port Melbourne, Vic: Cambridge University Press.

Notes
  • Treat the editor as you would an author. Enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) for Editor and (Eds.) for Editors after the last editor's name.
Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (Xed., pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Ryan, M. J. (2005). Evolution of behaviour. In J. Bolhuis & L. Giraldeau (Eds.), The behaviour of animals (pp. 294-314). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Higgs, J., McAllister, L., & Sefton, A. (2012). Communication in the health sciences. In J. Higgs, R. Ajjawi, L. McAllister, F. Trede, & S. Loftus (Eds.), Communicating in the health sciences (3rd ed., pp. 4-14). Melbourne, VIC.: Oxford University Press.

Notes
  • If the author wrote the entire book, then provide a reference for the whole book.
  • The author of the chapter is cited in the in-text reference.
  • For multiple authors of a chapter follow the same rules as for books with multiple authors.
  • The name of the book editor should be preceded by the word In.
  • Enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) for Editor and (Eds.) for Editors after the last editor's name.
  • For a book with no editor, include the word In before the book title.
  • For books that are a particular edition place the Edition statement in the bracket before the page numbers (see example above).
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
  • If citing an e-book chapter that does not have page numbers, omit that part of the reference. See eBook tab (above) for instructions on when to include [E-reader version].
In-text referencing

What is a compilation textbook?

It’s a collection of selected material taken from other authors. When citing this material in-text and in the reference list, you can cite as if you found their work in the original source. However, direct quotes that require page numbers in-text, need to be included from the compilation textbook (see below).

This is based on advice provided by APA Style experts.

Direct quote (page number(s) must be included from the compilation textbook rather than the original source. This is due to the reader/marker being able to identify where the information was cited in the compilation textbook.)

Lilienfeld et al. (2015) stated that “partial reinforcement may keep individuals 'hooked' in relationships that are not working” (p. 19).

Paraphrasing or summarising (use of page number(s) encouraged - see notes below)

A correlation has been established between partial reinforcement and subjects more likely to retain certain behaviours (Lilienfeld et al., 2015).

Reference list

Chapter from a compilation textbook (custom publication)

  • For subjects that use compilation textbooks (e.g., PHE1IDH – Individual Determinants of Health) cite the original authors both in text and in the reference list.
  • Students using the custom text Individual Determinants of Health and Human Behaviour, please be aware that the 2017 edition includes content from 11 different source titles. When referencing please look at the superscript letters (A, B etc.) added at the end of some paragraphs. These will take you to the footer of your book where you will find where the section starts and where it ends as well as the reference you need to use when working on your assignments.
  • Page number(s) identifying the chapter from within the original source must be included in the reference list.
     

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (x ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., Namy, L. L., Woolf, N. J., Jamieson, G., Marks, A., & Slaughter, V. (2015). Learning: How nurture changes us. In S. O. Lilienfeld, S. J. Lynn, L. L. Namy, N. J. Woolf (Eds.), Psychology: From inquiry to understanding (2nd ed., pp. 220–237). Melbourne, VIC: Pearson Australia.

Notes
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text. Use the page number(s) from the compilation textbook in-text. Use the page number(s) from the original source in the reference list following the guidelines in the textbook.
  • You will need to search for superscripts throughout all chapters when sighting the authors work.
Reference list

With DOI

Author, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work [E-reader version, if applicable]. doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxx

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The posttraumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Without DOI

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work [E-reader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://xxxx.xxxxxxxxxx.xxx.xx

Le Messurier, M. (2010). Teaching tough kids: Simple and proven strategies for student success. Retrieved from http://www.myilibrary.com

Notes
  • If the book was read or acquired through an online library e.g. Google Books, ebrary, NetLibrary and not on an e-reader device, omit the bracketed information from the reference.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
Reference list

With DOI

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work. doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxx

Hamilton, M. J., & Sadowsky, M. J. (2010). DNA profiling in ecology. In R. Jansson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of life sciences. doi10.1002/9780470015902.a0005454.pub2

Without DOI

Title of chapter or entry. (Year). In A. A. Author (Ed.). Title of work. Retrieved from http:// xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxxxxxx.xxx

Renal failure. (2009). In D. A. Bender (Ed.). A dictionary of food and nutrition. Retrieved from http://0-www.oxfordreference.com.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t39.e4593&srn=1&ssid=13537659#FIRSTHIT

Notes
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
Reference list

Author, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work (Vol. x). Location: Publisher.

Krebs, R. E. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of scientific principles, laws, and theories (Vol. 1). London, England: Greenwood Press.

 

Notes
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (B. B. Author & C. C. Author, Trans.). Location: Publisher. (Original work published in 1814).

Laplace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Notes

In-text Reference

  • When a date of publication is inapplicable, such as for an ancient text, cite the year of the translation you used, preceded by trans. e.g. (Aristotle, trans. 1931). Otherwise include the year of the version you used followed by version. e.g. (Plato, 1998 version).
  • When you know the original date of publication include it in the citation. e.g. Laplace (1814/1951).
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
Reference list

Unpublished thesis or dissertation:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or Unpublished master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Venn, S. E. (2007). Plant recruitment across alpine summits in South-Eastern Australia (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Thesis from an institutional repository or website:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Institution, Location). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Hanna, E. G. (2005). Environmental health and primary health care: Towards a new workforce model (Doctoral thesis, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia). Retrieved from http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/thesis/public/adt-LTU20061110.152550/index.html

Thesis from a database (e.g. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses):

Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Available from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)

Murray, K. E. (2009). Sudanese in Australia: Renewal and hope (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT No. 3364159)

Notes

Reference List

  • Italicise the title.
  • Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in parentheses after the title.
  • If the thesis is from a university outside the United States, include the University's name and location in the same parentheses).
  • For a thesis from an institutional repository or a website, include the full URL.
  • For a thesis from a database, include the name of the database and the accession or order number (i.e. UMI or AAT number) of the document.

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation)
    The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)
  • One author
    Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)
  • Two authors
    Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)
  • Three to five authors
    First in-text reference: Bradley, Ramirez, Soo and Walsh (2006) or (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

    Subsequent in-text references: Bradley et al. (2006) or (Bradley et al., 2006)
  • Six or more authors
    Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)
  • Group / corporate author
    La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing:
You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).