Internet materials

Reference list

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of webpage. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Center for Bioethics. (2009). Ethics and pharmaceutical marketing. Retrieved from http://www.bioethics.umn.edu/research/past-research-projects/ethics-and-pharmaceutical-marketing

Notes
  • If you discuss any website or page in general in a paper (including but not limited to social media), it is sufficient to give the URL in the text the first time it is mentioned. No reference list entry is needed e.g. The Quality Improvement Agency website is a valuable resource (http://www.qia.org.uk/).
  • Where page numbers are not provided give the paragraph number using the abbreviation para.
  • If headings are used cite the first few words of the heading and the number of the paragraph following to direct the reader e.g. (Regolith, 2010, "On the Earth", para. 6).
  • Include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

 

Reference list

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of article. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Australian Council for Educational Research. (2010). Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes. Retrieved from https://www.acer.org/files/AUSSE_Australasian-Student-Engagement-Report-ASER-2009.pdf

Notes
  • If information is missing (e.g. author, date, title) check the table that appears on the APA Style Notes section of this guide.
  • Include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

 

Reference list

Tweet

Author. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Enter the tweet message here. [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/xxxxxxxx

Rudd, K. [KRuddMP]. (2013, May 28). Talking to @BillGates re vaccinations & eliminating polio. Oz working with Gates Foundation on all these. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/MrKRudd/status/339201056472985600

Facebook Post

Author. [Given name]. (Year, Month Day). Enter Facebook post here (up to first 40 words). [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://facebook.com

Rudd, K. [Kevin]. (2013, July 1). Just launched the first site for DisabilityCare Australia in NSW - Australia's first national disability insurance plan. Critical for 500k fellow Australians. KRudd. [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://facebook.com

Notes
  • If you discuss any website or page in general in a paper (including but not limited to social media), it is sufficient to give the URL in the text the first time it is mentioned. No reference list entry is needed e.g. Newspapers like The Age provide up to the minute news coverage every day on their website (http://www.theage.com.au/) and Twitter account (https://twitter.com/theage).
  • If you paraphrase or quote specific information from social media but your readership will be unable to access the content (e.g., because of friends-only privacy settings or because the exchange occurred in a private message), cite the content as a personal communication.

 

Reference list

Lastname, Initial. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Palmer, J. (2009, November 9). My birth my choice rally [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/cfAaGhvRmmg 

La Trobe University Library. (2010, February 9). Why can't I just Google? [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bp-ZGFd5o5A

Khan Academy. (2011, September 12). Childhood growth [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gF0aA-si89Y&feature=share&list=PL01AEFFF7C4C3C881&index=18

Streaming video (from a library database)

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of streaming video [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Database Name database.

Gehman, W. (2008). Embracing aging [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Kanopy database.

Notes
  • The author of the video is the person who posted it and not necessarily the creator of the video.
  • Use an individual's real name as author, if available. Otherwise use their screen name or username.
  • When available, include both the author's real name and username [in square brackets] in the reference list. In text, reference by the author name that appears outside the brackets.
  • Capitalise the screen name or username as it appears online.

 

Reference list

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of entry [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Siegel, E. (2010, November 10). The physics of global warming [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/10/the-physics-of-global-warming/

 

Notes
  • If the author uses a screen name or nickname to post under this is used e.g. Data-Boy (2010).
  • If the author's full name is available, list the surname first followed by initials.
  • The title is not italicised, because it is a small part of a larger work. Include the name of the larger work (i.e., the list/forum/blog) if it is not part of the URL of your source.
  • Where page numbers are not provided give the paragraph number using the abbreviation para.
  • If headings are used cite the first few words of the heading and the number of the paragraph following to direct the reader e.g. (Regolith, 2010, "On the Earth", para. 6).
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
Reference list

Name. (Year, Month Day). Re: Title of entry [Blog comment]. Retrieved Month Day, from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Joe. (2010, November 10). Re: The physics of global warming [Blog comment]. Retrieved November 11, from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/the_physics_of_global_warming.php

FinFancier1989. (2010, December 10). Why betas are better [Blog comment]. Retrieved from Fish R Fantastic, http://www.blogmania.com/hgk19477hjgndks33327z

Notes
  • If the author uses a screen name or nickname to post under this is used e.g. Data-Boy (2010).
  • The title is not italicised, because it is a small part of a larger work. Include the name of the larger work (i.e., the list/forum/blog) if it is not part of the URL of your source.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
Reference list

Name of page or entry. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved Month Day, from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Regolith. (2010, October 6). Retrieved November 18, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regolith

Notes
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation)
    The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)
  • One author
    Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)
  • Two authors
    Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)
  • Three to five authors
    First in-text reference: Bradley, Ramirez, Soo and Walsh (2006) or (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

    Subsequent in-text references: Bradley et al. (2006) or (Bradley et al., 2006)
  • Six or more authors
    Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)
  • Group / corporate author
    La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing:
You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).