Reference list

Author. (n.d.). [Description of Map]. Retrieved date. Retrieved from URL

Google Maps. (n.d.). [Directions for driving from Ingolstadt, Germany, to Geneva, Switzerland]. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Retrieved from

Google Maps. (n.d.). [Plenty Road Bundoora]. Retrieved June 6, 2018. Retrieved from,145.0598259,16.25z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x6ad648bf8539b447:0x5045675218cd130!8m2!3d-37.695!4d145.064?hl=en

  • Because Google Maps pages are created on the fly, they have no published date. Use “n.d.”
  • No scale needed for Google maps
Reference list

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of work (x ed.). Location: Publisher.

Wiegand, P. (2012). Oxford School Atlas. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Eales, S (ed.). (2003). The Jacaranda atlas (2nd ed.). Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons.

  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.


Reference list

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of Map. Scale, [format]. Retrieved from URL

Central Intelligence Agency. (n.d.). China physiography. 1:30,000,000, [PDF map]. Retrieved from

United States Geological Survey. (2013). Pie Town Quadrangle New Mexico- Catron Co. 1:24,000, [PDF map]. Retrieved from

  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.
  • If the map does not have a title then provide an appropriate title that describes the map. Do not italicize the title. Enclose the title with square brackets to indicate that this is a description of the content, not a title.
  • Formats can include [TIFF map], [PNG map], [PDF map] etc.


Reference list

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of the map, (Series and series number [If there is one]). Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

Easterbrook, D. J. (1976). Geologic map of western Whatcom County, Washington, (Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-854-B). ca. 1:62,500. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

  • When information is not provided in the document use square brackets [ ] for the assumed date or place of publication,
  • Note: The abbreviation ca. stands for "approximately" and is used when a date, or in this instance a scale, is not known exactly.

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation)
    The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)
  • One author
    Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)
  • Two authors
    Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)
  • Three to five authors
    First in-text reference: Bradley, Ramirez, Soo and Walsh (2006) or (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

    Subsequent in-text references: Bradley et al. (2006) or (Bradley et al., 2006)
  • Six or more authors
    Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)
  • Group / corporate author
    La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).