Other sources

Reference list

Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of program (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of Producer.

Integrated Analytics. (2010). StatCrunch (Version 5.0) [Computer software]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

or

Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of program [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx.xxx.xx

 

Notes
  • In text give the proper name of the software and the version number.
  • Reference entries are not required for standard software or programming languages (e.g. Microsoft Word or Excel, Java, Adobe Photoshop, or SPSS).
  • In parentheses (brackets) immediately after the title, identify the version number, if any.
Reference list

Published in book form:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of paper or poster. In B. Editor (Ed.), Title of conference (pp. ). Location: Publisher. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Icart, T. (2009). How to hash into elliptic curves. In S. Halevi (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 5677, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2009: 29th Annual International Cryptology Conference (pp. 303-316). New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-03356-8

Published in journal form:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, A. A. (Year). Title of paper or poster. Title of conference, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Murray, D. B., Beckmann, M. & Kitano, H. (2006). Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(7), 2241-2246. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606677104

Online Abstract:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at Conference Name, Location. Abstract retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Lopez, K. (2012, October). An integrative approach to tribal policies in northwest tribes. Paper presented at the OPHA Annual Conference and Meeting, Corvallis, OR. Abstract retrieved from http://www.oregonpublichealth.org/assets/2012_Conference/2012%20opha%20abstracts.pdf

Notes
  • Conference proceedings are often published in book or periodical form.
  • Cite papers from a book using the same format as for a book or book chapter. If the editor's name is given, insert the name after the word "In".
  • If online include a DOI or URL.
  • Cite proceedings that are published regularly using the same format as for a journal. If online include a DOI or URL, as you would for an online journal article.
  • For papers that have not been formally published, include both the year and the month of the symposium/conference, for example: (2009, May).
  • Capitalise the name of symposium, which is a proper noun.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
Reference list

Lecture Notes

Print

Lecturer, A. (Year). Subject code, Lecture x, Topic x, Title of Lecture [Format]. Subject code, Location: Publisher.

Emmerling, M. (2011). BIO1OF, Lecture 5, Topic 2, Cell Structures Pt. 1 Membranes Diffusion and Osmosis  [PowerPoint slides]. BIO1OF, Bundoora, Australia:  La Trobe University, Department of Botany.

Online

Lecturer, A. (Year). Subject code, Lecture x, Topic x, Title of Lecture [Format]. Retrieved from Department name, Institution Name, LMS web site: https://xxx.xxxxxx.xxx.xx

Emmerling, M. (2011). BIO1OF, Lecture 5, Topic 2, Cell Structures Pt. 1 Membranes Diffusion and Osmosis  [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from Department of Botany, La Trobe University, LMS web site:  https://lms.latrobe.edu.au

Course Book

School Name, Institution Name (Year). Title of subject (Subject code). Location: Publisher.

School of Health Sciences, La Trobe University (2010). Social work practice in communities, semester 2 (SWP31COM). Melbourne: La Trobe University.

Notes
  • Course notes are treated in a similar style to books.
  • If the author is unknown, move the title to the author position, then include the year of publication.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

 

In text referencing

In text use the drug name and date

(Progout, 2008)

Reference list

Drug name. (Year). In Title of the resource. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Progout. (2008). In MimsOnline. Retrieved from http://www.mimsonline.com.au

Allopurinal. (2012). In Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved from http://0-amh.hcn.net.au.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au

Notes
  • Use the first part of the URL as indicated in the examples. These take you to the main search page to put in the drug name.
  • The date is the last update for the drug.
  • Do not use the long search string URL.

 

Reference list

REFERRING TO THE IMAGE:

The in-text reference should include Creator, Year.  If the Creator is not known, use Title.

The graph for Divorces granted within Australia from 1988 to 2007 (ABS, 2008), illustrates...

The Dance Central graphics are very strong for the Kinect (PR, 2010).

...in the anatomy of the head and neck (Primal Pictures, 2009).

INCLUDING THE IMAGE WITHIN YOUR TEXT:

As illustrated by the proposed Gateway Belief Model (Figure 1), the key...

 

Driver control layout. Taken from "Control strategy for a mobile self-balancing materials handling platform

Figure 1. The Gateway Belief Model (GBM). Reprinted from “The scientific consensus on climate change as a gateway belief: experimental evidence,” by S. van der Linden, A. Leiserowitz, G. Feinberg and E. Maibach, 2015, PLoS ONE, 10, e0118489. Copyright 2015 by van der Linden, et al.

Format of Caption/Copyright Statement: Article
Figure No. Your concise explanation of figure as title. Reprinted [adapted] from “Title of Article,” by A. Author, B. Author, and C. Author, Year, Journal Title, Volume, page number. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright holder.

Reference list

Reference according to the style for the source where the Figure is located.

Image from a Government Publication: Statistics

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Divorces Australia 2007 (cat. no. 3307.0.55.001). Canberra, Australia: ABS.

Image From a Website

Creator, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of image or work [Image]. Title of publication. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

PR. (2010, November 11). Kinect: the top launch games [Image]. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/gallery/2010/nov/09/kinect-xbox?picture=368520671

Image From a Database

Creator, A. (Year). Title of image [Image]. Title of database. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Primal Pictures. (2009). Regional anatomy: Head and neck: Meninges (layer 4, frame 19) [Image]. Anatomy TV. Retrieved from http://0-www.anatomy.tv.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au/new_home.aspx#

Image from a Journal Article (2-5 Authors) With DOI

Van der Linden, S.L., Leiserowitz, A.A., Feinberg, G.D., & Maibach, E.W. (2015). The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change as a Gateway Belief: Experimental Evidence. PLoS ONE, 10(2), e0118489. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118489

Notes
  • Figures are all illustrations except for Tables. Figures include graphs, photos, screenshots, drawings, images.
  • All figures are numbered as they appear in-text. Type the word 'Figure' and the figure number in italics, and end with a period. Eg Figure 1. Figures are numbered in a separate sequence to any tables.
  • Captions are immediately below each figure.  They provide a concise explanation of the figure.  If the figure has no title, this concise description can be used as the figure title.
  • IF the figure is reprinted or adapted from another source the caption must include a full citation and a Copyright Statement.  This citation includes all elements of the reference in the order of Title, author, year of publication and source.  The copyright statement is in the format, Copyright Year by Name of Copyright holder.
  • IF your work is going to be published, the Copyright Statement is followed by the permission statement, Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. You ONLY add the permission statement if permission has been sought and granted.

 

Reference list

Motion picture or film

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Zanuck, R. D. (Producer), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1975). Jaws [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Video or DVD

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of video or DVD [VHS Video or DVD]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Abouchar, C. & Haertsch, M. (Producers). (2011). The smile within [DVD]. Australia: Hot Tin Productions.

Streaming video (from a library database)

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of streaming video [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Database Name database

Gehman, W. (2008). Embracing aging [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Kanopy database.

Music recording

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)

Lang, K. D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

Notes
  • Audiovisual includes motion pictures or films, audio works, music recordings as well as static objects such as maps, photographs or artwork.
  • List the main contributor in the author position and use parentheses (brackets) to identify their role.
Reference list

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. (Year). Title [Kit] (xx ed.). Location: Publisher.

Hammill, D. D., Brown, V. L., Larsen, S. C., & Lee, J. (2007). TOAL-4: Test of adolescent and adult language: Assessing linguistic aspects of listening, speaking, reading and writing [Kit] (4th ed.). Austin, Tex: Pro-Ed.

Notes
  • Provide non routine information such as, information that is important for identification or retrieval, in square brackets directly after the title.
  • Capitalise the first letter of the notation eg [Kit].
Reference list

Print

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Location: Publisher.

Department of Health. (2012).  Staying healthy in the heat [Brochure]. Melbourne: Victorian Government.

Online

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Location: Publisher. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Department of Health. (2012). Staying healthy in the heat [Brochure]. Melbourne: Victorian Government. Retrieved from http://www.health.vic.gov.au/environment/downloads/heatwave_information_brochure.pdf

Notes
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
In text referencing

J. Saul (personal communication, February 23, 2010)

OR

(S. Harrison, personal communication, September 6, 2004)

Notes
  • Personal communications can include letters, emails, telephone conversations, interviews etc.
  • Since the information is not recoverable, personal communications should not be included in the Reference List. Cite them in-text only.
  • Provide the initials of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.
  • Some personal communications are recoverable and may be in the personal possession of an author, stored in an archive or institutional collection.
In text referencing (Van Nuys, 2007)
Reference list

Author, A. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of work [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

In text referencing

Direct quote (page number(s) must be included)

Science education faces "a looming crisis" (Horstman & Adams, 2010).

Paraphrasing (use of page number(s) encouraged)

Horstman and Adams (2010) note that a move from the blackboard is required.

Reference list

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Producer, B. B. (Producer). (Year). Title of episode [Radio programme]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive producer), Title of radio programme. Location: Publisher.

Horstman, M. (Writer), & Adams, J. (Director). (2010). Scientists in schools. [Television series episode]. In N. Lee (Executive Producer), Catalyst. Ultimo, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Notes
  • For an episode from a radio or television series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director (if available) in the author position and the producer in the editor position.
In text referencing As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, the Romantics "gloried in the ruins of memory" (as cited in Cameron, 2008, p. 83).
Reference list

Cameron, A. (2008). Modular narratives in contemporary cinema. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Notes
  • Use secondary sources only when you cannot retrieve a copy of the original source.
  • List the secondary source in the Reference List; in the text of your essay include the original work that you have used and provide a citation for the secondary source.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
In text referencing

Direct quote (page number(s) must be included)

Science education faces "a looming crisis" (Horstman & Adams, 2010).

Paraphrasing (use of page number(s) encouraged)

Horstman and Adams (2010) note that a move from the blackboard is required.

Reference list

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive producer), Title of programme. Location: Publisher.

Horstman, M. (Writer), & Adams, J. (Director). (2010). Scientists in schools. [Television series episode]. In N. Lee (Executive Producer), Catalyst. Ultimo, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Notes
  • For an episode from a radio or television series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director (if available) in the author position and the producer in the editor position.
In text referencing

(Investigators, Year)

(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)

Paraphrasing or summarising

The Pew Hispanic Center (2004) reported that......

Reference list

Dataset - Online:

Investigators. (Year). Title of dataset [Description of format or type]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxx

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets

Dataset with DOI:

Investigators. (Year). Title of dataset [Description of format or type]. doi:xx.xxxxxx

Memar, O. & Caughlin, B. (2018). The benefits of green tea in dermatology [Dataset]. doi:10.5281/ZENODO.1478221

In text referencing

There is no reason to cite photographs or images by you that were used in your research.  Everything in your article is presumed to be your own work unless you state otherwise.

If you do wish to make an acknowledgement of your own personal photo or image, provide in brackets using natural language, for example:

(Photograph of fox skull taken 18 November,  2013)

Reference list As a personal image or photograph is not retrievable, no entry is required in the Reference List.
Notes
  • If you place your photographs or images at the end of your document, then treat these as an appendix.
In text referencing

Hanley, Watt and Coventry (2019) showed a significant correlation between taking a break from the use of social networking sites and subjective well-being.

INCLUDING THE TABLE WITHIN YOUR TEXT:

As illustrated in Table 1, taking a break from the active or passive use of social networking sites affects a person's subjective sense of well-being …

Table 1. Correlation matrix between active and passive usage of Social Networking Sites (SNS) and Subjective Well-Being (SWB).

Correlation matrix... Taken from "Taking a break: The effect of taking a vacation...

Note. Correlation results for usage of Social Networking Sites and Subjective Well-being. Reprinted from “Taking a break: The effect of taking a vacation from Facebook and Instagram on subjective well-being,” by S. Hanley, S. Watt, & W. Coventry, 2019, PLoS ONE, 14(6), e0217743. Copyright 2019 by Hanley et al.

Format of Note & Copyright Statement: Article
Note. Your concise explanation of figure as title. Reprinted [adapted] from “Title of Article,” by A. Author, B. Author, and C. Author, Year, Journal Title, Volume, page number. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright holder.

Reference list

Reference according to the style for the source where the Table is located.

For this example :

Journal Article (2-5 Authors) Without DOI

Author, A.A., Author, B.B., Author, C.C., Author, D.D., & Author, E.E. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxx.

Hanley, S.M., Watt, S.E., & Coventry, W. (2019). Taking a break: The effect of taking a vacation from Facebook and Instagram on subjective well-being. PLoS ONE, 14(6), e0217743. Retrieved from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217743.

Notes
  • Tables typically present textual or numerical data in columns and rows. All other illustrations are Figures.
  • Tables and figures are numbered in separate sequences. All tables need to be numbered sequentially as they appear in text, e.g. Table 1, Table 2.
  • In-text reference should include author, date and page number. If author is not known, use Title.
  • In-text always refer to Table No. not to ‘table above’ or ‘table below’. Place table as close as possible to the paragraph that references the table. Do not place a table in the middle of a paragraph.
  • Notes are immediately below each table. Notes can include definitions and explanation of any abbreviations if needed.
  • The font size for Notes is 2 points smaller than text.
  • IF the table is reproduced or adapted from another source the note must include a full citation and a Copyright Statement. This citation includes all elements of the reference in the order of Title, author, year of publication and source. The copyright statement is in the format, Copyright Year by Name of Copyright holder.
  • IF your work is going to be published, the Copyright Statement is followed by the permission statement, Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. You ONLY add the permission statement if permission has been sought and granted.
Reference list

International Atomic Energy Agency. (2008). Ingestion of toxic materials (IAEA report No. 23). Retrieved from http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20059816

Notes
  • If applicable, the Technical or Research Report number should follow the title in parenthesis.
  • You are encouraged to provide page or paragraph numbers especially when it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
  • If retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement, unless the publisher has been identified as the author. 

For example:

Office of Nuclear Safety and Security. (2008). Ingestion of toxic materials (IAEA report No. 23). Retrieved from International Atomic Energy Agency http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20059816

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation)
    The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)
  • One author
    Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)
  • Two authors
    Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)
  • Three to five authors
    First in-text reference: Bradley, Ramirez, Soo and Walsh (2006) or (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

    Subsequent in-text references: Bradley et al. (2006) or (Bradley et al., 2006)
  • Six or more authors
    Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)
  • Group / corporate author
    La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing:
You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).