|Type of citation||First citation in text||Subsequent citations in text||Parenthetical format, first citation in text||Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text|
|One work by one author||Walker (2007)||Walker (2007)||(Walker, 2007)||(Walker, 2007)|
|One work by two authors||Walker and Allen (2004)||Walker and Allen (2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)|
|One work by three authors||Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)||Bradley et al. (1999)||(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)|
|One work by four authors||Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)||Bradley et al. (2006)||(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)||(Bradley et al., 2006)|
|One work by five authors||Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)||Walker et al. (2008)||(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)||(Walker et al., 2008)|
|One work by six or more authors||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)|
|Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 2003)||NIMH (2003)||(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)||(NIMH, 2003)|
|Groups (no abbreviation) as authors||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||
(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)
Taken from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010.
|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|Rev. ed.||Revised edition|
|2nd ed.||second edition|
|Ed. (Eds.)||Editor (Editors)|
|p. (pp.)||page (pages)|
|Vol.||Volume (as in Vol. 4)|
|Vols.||Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)|
|Tech. Rep.||Technical Report|
|DOI||digital object identifier|
Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p.180
For official U S state abbreviations : https://pe.usps.com/text/pub28/28apb.htm
Formatting your document
(Do not insert extra lines between paragraphs or the references list entries.)
Rules for the use of indents:
Hughes, F. (2008). Leadership in mental health nursing. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46, 8-9. Retrieved from http://www.healio.com/psychiatry/journals/jpn
Justification of text
For more information about the stylistic aspects of using APA, such as where to place page numbers and when to use italics, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, located in the library.
Please consult the manual directly for more detailed information:
APA. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) Washington, DC: APA.
The American Psychological Association website also provides useful information, including the basics of APA style: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspx
The APA style blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/
For more information:
La Trobe University. (2019). Presentations. Retrieved from http://latrobe.libguides.com/presentations
Lexis, L. & Julien, B (2017). Communicating scientific discoveries to peers. In How to do science: A guide to researching human physiology (pp. 125-134). Retrieved from https://library.latrobe.edu.au/ebureau/ebook.html#howtodoscience
Nicol, A. A. M. & Pexman, P. M. (2010). Visuals for presentations. In Display your findings: A practical guide for creating figures, posters and presentations (pp. 177-184). Washington, DC: American Psychological Assocation.
For more information:
La Trobe University. (2019). Writing: Health sciences. Retrieved from http://latrobe.libguides.com/writing/health-sciences
Lexis, L. & Julien, B. (2017). Communicating scientific discoveries to peers. In How to do science: A guide to researching human physiology (pp.125-134). Retrieved from https://library.latrobe.edu.au/ebureau/ebook.html#howtodoscience
Nicol, A. A. M. & Pexman, P. M. (2010). Posters. In Displaying your findings: A practical guide for creating figures, posters and presentations (pp. 103-176). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Place of Publication
Prahran, VIC: Tilde Press.
London, England: Bloomsbury.
For official U.S. state abbreviations: https://pe.usps.com/text/pub28/28apb.htm
Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong.
Brisbane, QLD: Australian Academic Press.
Montrouge, France: John Libbey Eurotext.
Russell, B. (2009). Human knowledge: Its scope and limits. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com (Original work published 1948).
Quotations and paraphrasing
In this Review, we describe the derivation of iPS cells, outline the functional assessments of pluripotency, and then recount how global assessments of gene expression, gene copy number variation, DNA methylation and chromatin modification provide a more nuanced comparison of iPS cells and ES cells. We detail how these features influence the utility of each of these cell types for disease modelling and therapeutics, and offer predictions for the evolution of the art of reprogramming somatic cells. (Daley & Robinton, 2012, p. 295)
We detail how these features influence the utility of each of these cell types for disease modelling and therapeutics, and offer predictions for the evolution of the art of reprogramming somatic cells.
The years since Takahashi and Yamanaka's breakthrough have seen a flood of papers touting advances in reprogramming technology, including alternative methods for reprogramming and the successful derivation of iPS cells from various cell types. Although the field has advanced at a breathtaking pace, investigators have recently taken a step back to more critically evaluate iPS cells relative to ES cells and have endeavoured to fully understand how these cell populations differ from one another in the hope of closing the gap between the two populations. (Daley & Robinton, 2012, p. 295)
Authors tend to publish their research via conference papers first, before reworking the paper for journal publication (Wainer & Valle, 2013, p. 7).
Wainer and Valle (2013, p. 7) argued that it is usual that authors publish in a conference first, then extend their article, and seek appropriate journal publication.
Reference list example
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349
Australian Council for Educational Research. (2010). Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes. Retrieved from http://ausse.acer.edu.au/images/docs/AUSSE_2009_Student_Engagement_Report.pdf
Blackberry's PlayBook tablet makes a surprise appearance on stage. (2010, November 2). The Australian, p. 43.
De Bellis, M. D., Narasimhan, A., Thatcher, D. L., Keshavan, M. S., Soloff, P., & Clark, D. B. (2005). Prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and cerebellar volumes in adolescent and young adults with adolescent onset-alcohol use disorders and comorbid mental disorders. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 1590-1600. doi:10.1097/01.alc.0000179368.87886.76
Deci, E. L. (2014). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry. Science Education, 84, 740-756. doi:10.1002/1098-237X
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (n.d.-a). Motivation and education. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/motivation-and-education/
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (n.d.-b). Research information in nurses’ clinical decision-making. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.acn.edu.au/education
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York, NY: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Self-determination theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 416-437). London, England: Sage.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (in press-a). Infusing PDA technology into nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (in press-b). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality.
de Visser, R. O., Hart, A., Abraham, C., Memon, A., Graber, R., & Scanlon, T. (2014). Which alcohol control strategies do young people think are effective? Drug and Alcohol Review, 33, 144-151. doi:10.1111/dar.12109
Elkind, D. (2007a). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong.
Elkind, D. (2007b). The power of play: How spontaneous, imaginative activities lead to happier, healthier children. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong.
Focus changes for Louisiana in oil cleanup. (2010, November 3). The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
Gregoriou, G. N. (Ed.). (2006). Advances in risk management. doi:10.1057/9780230625846
Le Messurier, M. (2010). Teaching tough kids: Simple and proven strategies for student success. Retrieved from http://0-lib.myilibrary.com.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au/home.aspx
The life of insects. (1979). Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett.
Merrill, C., & Daugherty, J. (2010). STEM education and leadership: A mathematics and science partnership approach. Journal of Technology Education, 21(2), 21-34. Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/
Rudd, K. [KRuddMP]. (2013, May 28). Talking to @BillGates re vaccinations & eliminating polio. Oz working with Gates Foundation on all these. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/MrKRudd/status/339201056472985600
Siegel, E. (2010, November 10). The physics of global warming [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/the_physics_of_global_warming.php
Books, theses or reports
Journal or newspaper titles
Journal article, newspaper article or chapter titles