Conclusions should include one or more of the following:
- Summary of the main points, findings or argument: remind your reader of the main points. Make sure you paraphrase your ideas so you don’t use the same wording as elsewhere in the assessment.
- Remaining problems and questions: indicate what still needs to be solved. Don’t be afraid to admit that you don't know everything.
- Areas for future research: provide suggestions for future research to address the problem, issue or question.
- A strong final sentence: leave the reader with an overall impression of your views on the topic.
Example conclusion: [All bolded text in brackets identify parts of the paragraph and should not be included in your own writing]
[Summary] Against a history of strong labour rights, Australia entered the 21st century with a distinct neoliberal agenda. Previous labour market conditions were rapidly deregulated and precarious employment has become a mainstay. Neoliberalism insists on individual responsibility over government or industry responsibility in respect to the safety, health and general welfare of individuals (Harvey 2005). In other words, according to neoliberal ideology, if an individual lacks financial resources or opportunities, it is the individual’s fault and has nothing to do with the structure of society or the economy. Furthermore, neoliberal ideology punishes individuals unable to succeed under this arrangement. As a result, individuals come to believe, as neoliberalism tells them, that their success is solely a result of personal choice rather than structural factors (Bourdieu 1998). A neoliberal belief in individual responsibility allows governments and employers to undermine workers’ rights, enabling the rise of precarious labour. All of this occurs amid a political climate that ignores and then punishes precarious workers. Precarious employment is a defining element of our contemporary society precisely because neoliberalism demands it. [Strong final sentence] If these conditions are to be addressed, we must first challenge the notion, inherent in neoliberal ideology, that the individual alone is responsible for their success and wellbeing.
Paragraph adapted and used with student permission.
For more information on including a Reference List, see Referencing.
For the full sample essay with annotations see the Word and PDF documents below.