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Academic Referencing Tool
La Trobe University Library La Trobe Library


Academic Referencing Tool
La Trobe University Library La Trobe Library


Academic Referencing Tool

Style notes



  • See AGLC rule 1.13
  • A bibliography appears at the end of a piece of written work and lists all the material used or relied upon in producing that work, whether cited in the footnotes or not. Note that a shorter form of bibliography lists only the materials actually cited in the footnotes. This short form of bibliography is sometimes called a 'list of references'.
  • If a bibliography is used, group items in alphabetical order by author surname, under the following headings (where applicable):

A. Articles / Books / Reports
B. Cases
C. Legislation
D. Treaties
E. Other

  • Consult the relevant subject learning guide and, if still in doubt, the relevant subject co-ordinator as to whether a bibliography is required for a particular piece of assessment in a subject. Honours theses require a bibliography.
  • In the bibliography include all the information that is included in footnotes, except that
    • pinpoint references should not appear, and
    • full stops should not follow citations.
  • For articles, books and reports, the first-listed author’s surname should appear first, followed by a comma and then the author’s first name or initial. (Corporate authors can remain unchanged.)

Atiyah, P S, The Damages Lottery (Hart Publishing, 1997)

Lea, Tess et al, Sustainable Indigenous Housing in Regional and Remote Australia (AHURI Final Report No 368, November 2021)

Pepper, Rachel and Harry Hobbs, ‘The Environment is All Rights: Human Rights, Constitutional Rights and Environmental Rights’ (2021) 44(2) Melbourne Journal of International Law 634



Citing quoted material

  • See AGLC rule 1.3.
  • It is sometimes the case that the material you want to cite is itself quoted in the book or article that you actually have in front of you. For example, you may be reading Smith and see that she quotes a passage from Palam, and it is the quote from Palam that you want to cite in your own work.
  • In such cases, you should normally try to get hold of the original text (here Palam) so that you will be able to cite it directly. However, sometimes it is not reasonably feasible to locate the original text, and so you will need to make do with the original text as it has been quoted in the secondary text (here Smith).
  • Where this is the case, you should give as full a reference (following AGLC style) to the original text as you can glean from the secondary text, then use the words 'quoted in', and then give the normal reference to the secondary text.
  • Providing this information allows your reader to know what the original text is that you are citing and to try to obtain it themselves, rather than rely on your second-hand quotation.
  • It is misleading and potentially deceptive to cite only the original source (Palam) as if you have consulted it directly when you have only consulted the secondary source (Smith). To do so is inadequate and risks charges of plagiarism because you are not revealing your actual source.
  • It also may not be adequate simply to say 'Palam, as cited in Smith' where you give proper details of Smith but no further available information about Palam. This practice would be acceptable only if Smith him or herself had failed to provide the appropriate information about the source of the Palam quotation.
  • You can use 'ibid' in the usual way to refer back to previously cited material from which the currently cited material was taken.

2 F A Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960) 153, quoted in Jeremy Waldron, The Law (Routledge, 1990) 51.
3 Ngaire Naffine, Law's Meaning of Life: Philosophy, Religion, Darwin and the Legal Person (Hart Publishing, 2009).
4 Steven Wise, Rattling the Cage: Towards Legal Rights for Animals (Perseus Books, 2000), quoted in ibid 131.



First Nations

  • When referencing materials by First Nations creators, it is important to note the Nation or Country and/or language group of the person or community who created them. Note this in the text of your assignment. There is not yet a rule for adding Nation/Country/language group to a correct AGLC citation.




  • See AGLC rules 1.1 - 1.4
  • Use footnotes for citations. Do not use endnotes. Do not insert citation details in the text in parentheses. (See AGLC rule 1.1)
  • Within the footnotes, use 'Ibid' (meaning 'the same') if the source and pinpoint reference in the immediately preceding footnote is the same source and pinpoint being cited in the current footnote. (The 'pinpoint' is the particular page, paragraph, chapter, etc. to which you refer.) If the source is the same but the pinpoint reference differs, put 'Ibid' and then the relevant new pinpoint reference. (See AGLC rule 1.4.3)
  • Do not use 'id', 'op cit', etc.
  • If the source being cited has been cited in an earlier footnote but not in the immediately preceding footnote, a shortened form of citation may be used with a cross-reference in parentheses to the footnote number for the first citation. (See AGLC rule 1.4.1)
  • Where multiple sources have been cited in a footnote, and in the immediately succeeding footnote you want to cite only one of those sources, use rule 1.4.1. Do not use 'ibid' plus the author's name. (See AGLC rule 1.4.3)
  • When referring to a subsequent passage or footnote, use 'below'. (See AGLC rule 1.4.2)
  • Do not use 'supra' and 'infra'.
  • Put a full stop at the end of each footnote.

3 P S Atiyah, The Damages Lottery (Hart Publishing, 1997) 27.
4 Ibid.
5 Ibid 188-9.
6 Ronald Dworkin, Law's Empire (Fontana, 1986) ch 6.
7 Atiyah (n 3) 15.
8 See below s IV .
9 See below n 20 for subsequent cases on this issue.
10 W R Cornish, The Jury (Penguin Books, 1971) 112; Simon Lee, Judging Judges (Faber and Faber, 1989) 3.
11 Lee (n 10) 5.


If you come across any inconsistencies with the referencing examples in ART, send your feedback to

Important note: These guidelines have been designed to be used in university coursework, e.g. essays, reports, presentations. For work that is required to be published, or communicated to an audience wider than the University, please consult the appropriate publication manual, your publisher, the University Copyright Officer, and / or your research supervisor for guidance.

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