About APA 7

This guide is based on the seventh edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2020), which replaces the sixth edition of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2009).

Some of the changes include:

  • In-text citations with more than three authors are shortened to et al.
  • Publisher locations are not included for books and book chapters.
  • Up to 20 authors are now included in a reference.
  • Retrieved from is no longer needed unless there is a retrieval date.
  • Both URLs and DOIs are presented as hyperlinks.
  • Changes to ebooks and more referencing examples available.
  • See Style Notes - APA 7 What's new? for more information.

Please note: Students should check with their lecturers / subject coordinators who will determine what referencing style is to be used. Generally speaking, if you are midway through an assignment or thesis using APA 6 you should continue with APA 6, unless told otherwise by your lecturer / subject co-ordinator. The previous version of our Academic Referencing Tool will remain accessible to all students and staff until December 2020.

Need help?

APA 7 What's new?

APA 7

APA 6

In-text citations with more than three authors are shortened to et al.

Three or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)

Six or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)

Publisher locations are not included for books and book chapters.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Up to 20 authors are now included in a reference.

For up to 20 authors: include all authors' names.
For 21 or more authors: include the names of the first 19 authors, followed by three ellipses (...), then add the final author's name.

For up to 7 authors: include all authors' names.
For 8 or more authors: include the names of the first 6 authors, followed by three ellipses (...), then add the final author's name.

Retrieved from is no longer needed unless there is a retrieval date.

Australian Council for Educational Research. (2010). Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes. https://www.acer.org/files/AUSSE_Australasian-Student-Engagement-Report-ASER-2009.pdf

Australian Council for Educational Research. (2010). Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes. Retrieved from https://www.acer.org/files/AUSSE_Australasian-Student-Engagement-Report-ASER-2009.pdf

Present both URLs and DOIs as hyperlinks.

Seaton, K. A. (2018). Don't cheat yourself: Scenarios to clarify collusion confusion. La Trobe eBureau. https://doi.org/10.26826/1009

Seaton, K. A. (2018). Don't cheat yourself: Scenarios to clarify collusion confusion. doi:10.26826/1009

eBooks

 

Include the publisher name.

Include the DOI as a hyperlink after the publisher name.

If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research (library) database, reference it as a print book.

Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks.

Do not include the e-reader version, format, platform or device.

Do not include publisher name.

Include e-reader version in square brackets, if applicable.

Include doi label, e.g. doi:10.26826/1009

If the book does not have a DOI include the URL after Retrieved from, or the URL of the academic research (library) database.

Lots more referencing examples available (new to APA 7)

For example,

Audiovisual - artwork, clipart, images, musical scores and more.
Social media - including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, TikTok, LinkedIn and more.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.); APA Style Grammar and Guidelines.