Books

Footnotes

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Bill Gammage, The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines Made Australia (Crows Nest, NSW:  Allen & Unwin, 2011), 102.

Dean R. Snow, Archaeology of Native North America (Boston: Prentice Hall, 2010), 67.

Bibliography

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Gammage, Bill, The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines Made Australia (Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2011).

Snow, Dean R., Archaeology of Native North America (Boston: Prentice Hall, 2010).

Notes
  • If the place of publication is not a major, well known city or could be confused for a different city of the same name, note the state after it, i.e. Crows Nest, NSW or Hoboken, NJ (for the city in New Jersey) or Cambridge, MA (for the city in Massachusetts, USA).
  • Country and state capitals shouldn’t need a state abbreviation
  • You do not need to refer to the country of publication
  • The author’s name should be cited as it appears on the book. If the author’s first name is printed on the book, use it. If an author goes by first initials, use those instead, i.e. J.K. Rowling instead of Joanne Kathleen Rowling.

 

Footnotes

Author and Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Larry Ceplair and Steven Englund, The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960 (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1980), 335.

Bibliography

Author and Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Ceplair, Larry, and Englund, Steven, The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960 (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1980).

Notes
  • If the place of publication is not a major, well known city or could be confused for a different city of the same name, note the state after it, i.e. Crows Nest, NSW or Hoboken, NJ (for the city in New Jersey) or Cambridge, MA (for the city in Massachusetts, USA).
  • Country and state capitals shouldn’t need a state abbreviation
  • You do not need to refer to the country of publication
  • The author’s name should be cited as it appears on the book. If the author’s first name is printed on the book, use it. If an author goes by first initials, use those instead, i.e. J.K. Rowling instead of Joanne Kathleen Rowling.
Footnotes

First Author et al., Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Patricia Grimshaw et al., Creating a Nation (Ringwood, Vic: McPhee Gribble, 1994), 30.

Bibliography

First Author, et al., Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Grimshaw, Patricia, et al., Creating a Nation (Ringwood, Vic: McPhee Gribble, 1994).

Notes
  • For more than four authors, only list first author followed by et al
  •  If the place of publication is not a major, well known city or could be confused for a different city of the same name, note the state after it, i.e. Crows Nest, NSW or Hoboken, NJ (for the city in New Jersey) or Cambridge, MA (for the city in Massachusetts, USA).
  •  Country and state capitals shouldn’t need a state abbreviation
  • You do not need to refer to the country of publication
  • The author’s name should be cited as it appears on the book. If the author’s first name is printed on the book, use it. If an author goes by first initials, use those instead, i.e. J.K. Rowling instead of Joanne Kathleen Rowling.
Footnotes

Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

A Woman in Berlin, tr. James Stern (London: Secker & Warburg, 1955), 19.

Beowulf, ed., tr. Michael Swanton (Manchester: MUP, 1978), 189.

Rig Veda: An Anthology: One Hundred and Eight Hymns, Selected, Translated and Annotated, tr. Wendy Doniger (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1981), 255-263.
 

Bibliography

Anon., Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Anon., A  Woman in Berlin, tr. James Stern (London: Secker & Warburg, 1955).

Anon., Beowulf, ed., tr. Michael Swanton (Manchester: MUP, 1978).

Anon., Rig Veda: An Anthology: One Hundred and Eight Hymns, Selected, Translated and Annotated, tr. Wendy Doniger (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1981).

Notes
  •  In the bibliography Anon., should be included at the start of the citation where the author’s name would ordinarily go; citations are then listed alphabetically by title.
  • Do not use Anon., in the footnote; begin the citation with the title.
  • If the book has an editor or translator their name should appear after the title with ed. or tr. used to indicate editor or translaor (see example above)
  • The Beowulf example above has both editor and translator as the same person, if editor and translator are different people, separate their names with ‘and’
  • If the author’s name is not given on the text, but is known from other sources, their [name should be bracketed] at the start of the citation where the author’s name would go.
Footnotes

Editor/s (ed./eds.), Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Judith R. Baskin (ed.), Jewish Women in Historical Perspective (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991), 157.

Bibliography

Editor/s (ed./eds.), Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Baskin, Judith, R. (ed.), Jewish Women in Historical Perspective (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991).

Notes
  • Follow the editor or editors names with (ed.) for editor and (eds.) for editors.
Footnotes

Chapter Author, ‘Chapter Title’ in Book Editor/s (ed./eds.), Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page exent.

Erik Gray, ‘The Hair of Milton: historicism and literary history’ in Damian Walford Davies (ed.), Romanticism, History, Historicism: Essays on an Orthodoxy (New York: Routledge, 2009), 33.

Bibliography

Chapter Author, ‘Chapter Title’ in Book Editor/s (ed./eds.), Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Gray, Erik, ‘The Hair of Milton: historicism and literary history’ in Damian Walford Davies (ed.), Romanticism, History, Historicism: Essays on an Orthodoxy (New York: Routledge, 2009).

Notes
  • Use the abbreviation (ed.) for a single author and (eds.) for two. If there are more than two editors of the book, only cite the first listed author, followed by et al (eds.)
Footnotes

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Larry May, After War Ends: A Philosophical Perspective (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), 114.

Bibliography

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

May, Larry, After War Ends: A Philosophical Perspective (Cambridge: CUP, 2012).

Notes
  •  eBooks that you access through a library or have purchased from a bookshop, are cited the same as a print title (because they are meant to be exactly the same as the print version).
  •  eBooks that you find on a general website will need to be cited as a web document because the content may be different from a published version or may have been edited by the person who put it online.
Footnotes

Chapter Author, ‘Chapter Title’ in Book Editor/s (ed./eds.), Book Titl(Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Joanne Shattock, ‘Elizabeth Gaskell: Journalism and Letters’, in Laurel Brake & Marysa Demoor (eds.), The Lure of Illustration in the Nineteenth Century Picture and Press (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 119-127 at 122.

Bibliography

Chapter Author, ‘Chapter Title’ in Book Editor/s (ed./eds.), Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Shattock, Joanne, ‘Elizabeth Gaskell: Journalism and Letters’ in Laurel Brake & Marysa Demoor (eds.), The Lure of Illustration in the Nineteenth Century Picture and Press (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 119-127.

Notes
  • eBooks that you access through a library or have purchased from a bookshop, are cited the same as a print title (because they are meant to be exactly the same as the print version).
  • eBooks that you find on a general website will need to be cited as a web document because the content may be different from a published version or may have been edited by the person who put it online.
Footnotes

Author, Title (edn., Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians: A History Since 1788 (4th edn., Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2010), 34.

Bibliography

Author, Title (edn., Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Broome, Richard, Aboriginal Australians: A History Since 1788 (4th edn., Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2010).

Notes
  • Only write an edition number that is the 2nd or later. There is no need to write 1st edn.
  • It is important to cite the edition number because there will likely have been changes to later editions; the quote you are citing may be on a different page number in another edition.
  • Cite the edition with the number and edn. before the Place of Publication. See the example above.
  • When a new edition is by the same author as previous editions, the edition number goes into the brackets with the publication details.
  • If the edition is by a brand new author, then edn. follows the title and does not go in the brackets.
Footnotes

Author, Title (edn., Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians: A History Since 1788 (4th edn., Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2010), 34.

Richard Broome, Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800 (Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2005), 45.

Bibliography

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Broome, Richard, Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800 (Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2005).

—Aboriginal Australians: A History Since 1788 (4th edn., Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2010).

Notes
  • In the bibliography arrange works by the same author first by the author’s name and then by the year of publication with the earliest year first.
  • In the example above, Richard Broome’s book from 2010 might be cited in an essay before the 2005 book, but in the bibliography the 2005 book will be listed before the 2010.
  • Cite the footnotes as normal; it is only in the bibliography that you remove the author’s name and replace it with an em-dash to indicate that it is the same author as the book above.
  • Create an em-dash using Office Word by holding down <Ctrl> <Alt> <hyphen on keypad> (PC) or <Shift> <Option> <minus key> (Mac)
Footnotes

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Philip Roth, Novels and Other Narratives, 1986-1991 (New York: Library of America, 2008), 134.

Philip Roth, Indignation (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008), 48.

Bibliography

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Roth, Philip, Indignation (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008).

— Novels and Other Narratives, 1986-1991 (New York: Library of America, 2008).

Notes
  • If you use more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, list them in the Footnotes in the order that they are cited. Organise them in the bibliography first by the author's name, then alphabetically by the title of the book, article etc.
Footnotes

Organisation/Business Name, Title [web document] (year) <URL> page extent or para. number, access date.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Annual Report 2011 [web document] (2011) <http://abc.net.au/corp/annual_reports/ar11/pdf/ar2010_11_complete_report.pdf> 44, accessed 22 Nov. 2012.

Organisation/Business Name, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page extent.

La Trobe University, Responsible Futures: Sustainability Report 2010 (Bundoora, VIC: La Trobe University, 2011), 17.

Bibliography

Organisation/Business Name, Title [web document] (year) <URL>, access date.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Annual Report 2011 [web document] (2011) <http://abc.net.au/corp/annual_reports/ar11/pdf/ar2010_11_complete_report.pdf>, accessed 22 Nov. 2012.

Organisation/Business Name, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year).

La Trobe University, Responsible Futures: Sustainability Report 2010 (Bundoora, VIC: La Trobe University, 2011).

Notes
  • The examples above are for either an online document or a print version.
  • The online version needs to have [web document] included after the title, even if it’s a PDF.
  • If the document is an online PDF, reference the page number of your quote in the Footnote; see the Footnote example above.
  • If the document is not a PDF, but an online html version, reference the paragraph number of your quote in the Footnote.
  • If you read a print version, reference it like a book with (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year) details included.

Books - other

Footnotes

Title, volume, s.v. ‘item name’

UXL Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, i, s.v. ‘Choctaw’

Bibliography

Title, volume, s.v. ‘item name’

UXL Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes,i, s.v. ‘Choctaw’

Notes
  • An encyclopedia or dictionary that is an electronic book is cited the same as the print
  • References to an alphabetically arranged work, i.e. an entry in a dictionary should cite the item preceded by s.v. (For the Latin sub verbo, ‘under the word’).
  • Include the volume number in roman numerals for a dictionary or encyclopedia with numerous volumes.
  • You do not need to include publication details or page numbers for an encyclopedia or dictionary.
Footnotes

Title, volume, s.v. ‘item name’

Encyclopedia of the Renaissance, iii, s.v. ‘Raphael’

Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, s.v. ‘Odeon’

Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC), s.v. 'Iphigeneia' (cat no. 111439)

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World, s.v. ‘Minerva’

Bibliography

Title, volume, s.v. ‘item name’

Encyclopedia of the Renaissance, iii, s.v. ‘Raphael’

Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, s.v. ‘Odeon’

Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC), s.v. ‘ Iphigeneia’ (cat no. 111439)

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World, s.v. ‘Minerva’

Notes
  • Rules for citing reference works vary greatly.
  • Well-known reference works such as Encyclopedia Britannica and Webster’s or Macquarie dictionaries are often only cited in the notes or the text and do not appear in bibliographies. Publication details are often omitted, with only a brief citation given.
  • References to an alphabetically arranged work, i.e. an entry in a dictionary should cite the item preceded by s.v. (For the Latin sub verbo, ‘under the word’).
  • Include the volume number in roman numerals for a dictionary or encyclopedia with numerous volumes. See the Encyclopedia of the Renaissance example above.
  • When using a very large encyclopedia with catalogue numbers, include this number in (soft parentheses) after the entry name. The catalogue number will help find the item. See the ‘Iphigeneia’ example above.
Footnotes

Basic format:

‘Item name’, Name of online reference (Year published) <URL>, access date.

‘Venice Film Festival’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2012) <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/625395/Venice-Film-Festival>, accessed 21 Nov. 2012.

‘Achilles tendon’ in Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1st edn., Philadelphia: Henry Altemus, 1898), published online 2000 <http://www.bartleby.com/81/>, accessed 21 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

Basic format:

‘Item name’, Name of online reference (Year published) <URL>, access date.

‘Achilles tendon’ in Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1st edn., Philadelphia, PA: Henry Altemus, 1898), published online 2000 <http://www.bartleby.com/81/>, accessed 21 Nov. 2012

‘Venice Film Festival’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2012) <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/625395/Venice-Film-Festival>, accessed 21 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • If author and publishing details are known include them like a normal reference book, see the Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable example above
  • If author and original publishing details are not known, just cite the name of the entry, the name of the website and the URL
  • This citation differs from a regular reference format because an online version may change at any time, whereas print and e-books won’t change until a new edition is published
  • The encyclopedia or dictionary entry is entered first, in single inverted commas, i.e. ‘Venice Film Festival’, for both the footnote and bibliography
Footnotes

Original Author, Title of original book (Place of Publication: Publisher, year) cited in Secondary Book Author, Title of Secondary source (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Norman Klein, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (London: Verso, 1997) cited in Allan Cameron, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema (Basingstoke, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 83.

Bibliography

Secondary Book Author, Title of Secondary source (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Cameron, Allan, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema (Basingstoke, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

Notes
  • This is where the work of one author is cited in another author’s work. In the example above, Norman Klein is the author of an original source and Allan Cameron is citing him in his own book, making Allan Cameron’s book the secondary source.
    • See Footnote example above – Norman Klein is cited as the author of a quote with the title and publishing details of his book, followed by the details of the book where the quote was found.
    • The publishing details of Norman Klein’s book were found in the bibliography of Allan Cameron’s book
    • See the Bibliography example above – Norman Klein is not cited here, just the author of the book which has the Norman Klein quote.
  • The original and secondary source should be cited in the footnote.
  • In the bibliography, only list the secondary source. Do not list original sources that you did not read.
Footnotes

Author, ‘Title’, thesis type (Institution, year), page extent.

John Cumming, ‘A Long Road to the Small Screen: John Hughes and the Independent Film and Video Movement in Australia’, M.A. thesis (La Trobe University, 2004), 135

Tina Kalivas, ‘Recipes for Cypriot Tradition: Greek-Cypriot Immigrants’ Domestic Food Cultures in Melbourne c.1947-2003’, Ph.D. thesis (La Trobe University, 2007), 225.

Author, ‘Title’, M.A. thesis or Ph.D. thesis (Institution, year), page extent.

John Cumming, ‘A Long Road to the Small Screen: John Hughes and the Independent Film and Video Movement in Australia’, M.A. thesis (La Trobe University, 2004), 135

Tina Kalivas, ‘Recipes for Cypriot Tradition: Greek-Cypriot Immigrants’ Domestic Food Cultures in Melbourne c.1947-2003’, Ph.D. thesis (La Trobe University, 2007), 225.

Bibliography

Author, ‘Title’, M.A. thesis or Ph.D. thesis (Institution, year).

Cumming, John, ‘A Long Road to the Small Screen: John Hughes and the Independent Film and Video Movement in Australia’, M.A. thesis (La Trobe University, 2004).

Kalivas, Tina, ‘Recipes for Cypriot Tradition: Greek-Cypriot Immigrants’ Domestic Food Cultures in Melbourne c.1947-2003’, Ph.D. thesis (La Trobe University, 2007).

Author, ‘Title’, thesis type (Institution, year).

Cumming, John, ‘A Long Road to the Small Screen: John Hughes and the Independent Film and Video Movement in Australia’, M.A. thesis (La Trobe University, 2004).

Kalivas, Tina, ‘Recipes for Cypriot Tradition: Greek-Cypriot Immigrants’ Domestic Food Cultures in Melbourne c.1947-2003’, Ph.D. thesis (La Trobe University, 2007).

Notes
  • The title of a thesis is not italicised because it is an unpublished work.
  • The university that accepted the thesis and the year are the only publisher-related details needed; only include the city if it is relevant to the university’s name, e.g. University of California, Berkeley or University of California, San Diego.
  • Cite the name of the university in its full form, i.e. New York University, not NYU.
  • Write thesis or dissertation, whichever is printed on the title page of the work; likewise, cite the degree in the same manner as it appears on the title page, i.e. if it says DPhil, then use it instead of PhD.

 

Footnotes

Original Author, Title, tr. Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Homer, Odyssey, tr. Robert Fagles (New York: Penguin, 1997), 422

Immanuel Kant, Kritik der Reinen Vernunft [Critique of Pure Reason], ed., tr. Marcus Weigelt (London: Penguin, 2007), 555.

Bibliography

Original Author, Title, tr. Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Homer, Odyssey, tr. Robert Fagles (New York: Penguin, 1997).

Kant, Immanuel, Kritik der Reinen Vernunft [Critique of Pure Reason], ed., tr. Marcus Weigelt (London: Penguin, 2007).

Notes
  • The original author is still the primary author of the work, so their name comes first in the citation.
  • The translator or editor’s name then follows the title of the book
  •  In the Immanuel Kant example above, the book has an editor and translator, who is the same person, so ed., tr. are used to indicate this.
  • If a book has a separate editor and translator, write ed. Name and tr. Name.
  • The publication details are for the edition that you have read. Details about the original edition are not needed.
  • You do not need to state when the book was originally written.
Footnotes

Series:
Author/s, Title, Series title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page extent.

Multi-volume title:
Author/s, Title, volume number in roman numerals: Volume Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page extent.

Annemarie Hughes, Gender and Political Identities in Scotland, 1919-1939, Scottish Historical Review Monographs 17 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010), 157.

Frances Peters-Little et al. (eds.), Passionate Histories: Myth, Memory and Indigenous Australia, Aboriginal History Monograph Series (Canberra: ANU E Press & Aboriginal History, 2010), 256.

Dana Polan, Pulp Fiction, BFI Modern Classics (London: BFI Publishing, 2000), 75.

Bibliography

Series:
Author/s, Title, Series title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year).

Multi-volume title:
Author/s, Title, volume number in roman numerals: Volume Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year).

Hughes, Annemarie, Gender and Political Identities in Scotland, 1919-1939, Scottish Historical Review Monographs 17 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010).

Peters-Little, Frances et al. (eds.), Passionate Histories: Myth, Memory and Indigenous Australia, Aboriginal History Monographs 21 (Canberra: ANU E Press & Aboriginal History, 2010).

Polan, Dana, Pulp Fiction, BFI Modern Classics (London: BFI Publishing, 2000).

Notes
  • Series titles are optional, but can be very helpful for the reader to see that a book belongs to a series.
  • For further information see the New Oxford Style Manual (Oxford, OUP, 2012), rule 18.2.8 – series titles; rule 18.2.7 – multi-volume works.
Footnotes

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date, page extent.

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date, <URL>, access date, para. number.

Steven Carroll, ‘The Stuff of Theatre’, review of Ira Nadel, Double Act: A Life of Tom Stoppard, in Age, ‘Saturday Extra’, 28 Sept. 2002, 8 .

David Free, ‘Why Me? Why Not?’, review of Christopher Hitchens, Mortality, in Australian, 25 Aug. 2012, in Factiva [online database], accessed 1 Dec. 2012.

Gerardo Marti, review of Brian S. Turner, Religion and Modern Society: Citizenship, Secularization, and the State, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1 Dec. 2012, 1136-39.

Lucy Sussex, ‘Life in Dingo Dell’, review of Peter Morton, Lusting for London: Australian Expatriate Writers at the Hub of Empire, 1870-1950, in Australian Book Review, June 2012, <https://www.australianbookreview.com.au/june-2012/993-342-literarystudies-sussex>, accessed 1 Dec. 2012, para. 6.

Bibliography

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date.

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date, <URL>, access date.

Carroll, Steven, ‘The Stuff of Theatre’, review of Ira Nadel, Double Act: A Life of Tom Stoppard, in Age, ‘Saturday Extra’, 28 Sept. 2002.

Free, David, ‘Why Me? Why Not?’, review of Christopher Hitchens, Mortality, in Australian, 25 Aug. 2012, in Factiva [online database], accessed 1 Dec. 2012.

Marti, Gerardo, review of Brian S. Turner, Religion and Modern Society: Citizenship, Secularization, and the State, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1 Dec. 2012.

Sussex, Lucy, ‘Life in Dingo Dell’, review of Peter Morton, Lusting for London: Australian Expatriate Writers at the Hub of Empire, 1870-1950, in Australian Book Review, June 2012, <https://www.australianbookreview.com.au/june-2012/993-342-literarystudies-sussex>, accessed 1 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • Quality book reviews will be published in newspapers, trade magazines or journals; book reviews from general websites may not be good sources for essays (check with your lecturer or tutor)
  • Because they feature within publications, the details of those publications need to be included in the citation, i.e. the title of the newspaper or journal and the date it was published are necessary.
  • If you read the review online, such as the Age online, include the URL; in the footnote, include the paragraph reference point for your quote; in the bibliography, do not include the paragraph reference point. See the Lucy Sussex citation above for an online review example.
  • Do not include URLs for online journals or databases, like Factiva, because they are subscription-based and will ask for a login.
Footnotes

Pseudo-Author, ‘entry name (if relevant)', Title of early work, tr. or ed. Name (1st edn., Place of Publication: Publisher (if known): Year), published online year <URL>, access date.

Pseudo-Orpheus, ‘To Fire’, The Hymns of Orpheus, tr. Thomas Taylor (1st edn., London: 1792), published online 2010 <http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hoo/hoo09.htm > accessed 21 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

‘Author (Pseudo-)’, ‘entry name (if relevant), Title of early work, tr. or ed. Name (1st edn., Place of Publication: Publisher (if known): Year), published online year <URL>, access date.

‘Orpheus (Pseudo-)’, ‘To Fire’, The Hymns of Orpheus, tr. Thomas Taylor (1st edn., London: 1792), published online 2010 <http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hoo/hoo09.htm > accessed 21 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • Early works may be attributed to an author but the legitimacy of their authorship is suspected. In these instances use Pseudo- before the name.
  • Only use the Pseudo- when there is a general consensus that a particular author did not in fact write the work with their name on it, or if they are mythical.
  • Try to include as much information as you have about an early classic work.
  • If you read a print translation cite it like a translated book, but still include the Pseudo-Author information at the start of the citation.
  • If you read a translation online, include the year it was published online and the URL; see the example above.
  • Most likely there will not be information about the publisher of an early classic work, in which case leave it blank.
  • If the author is unknown, leave it blank and start the citation with ‘entry name’ or the Title of early work.
  • ‘Entry name’ can refer to the name of a poem or essay or other facet of the work; in the example above ‘To Fire’ is the name of one of the hymns.
Footnotes

Bible:
Chapter name chapter number: verse number

Isaiah 6: 9

Koran:
Sūra number, v. number

Sūra 19, v. 12

Notes
  •  The reference in text can be abbreviated to the book name i.e. for Genesis, Gen. 24: 61-65
  • If the entire reference is quoted in the body of text, the Footnote reference is not required. E.g. if you write, “In the Bible, at Isaiah 6:9…” you do not need to Footnote. If you are writing generally without referring to the chapter and verse, you will need to include a Footnote with chapter and verse details.
  • When citing Sūra and verse from the Koran, writing only the number of the Sūra and the verse number is acceptable, e.g. 19. 12 instead of Sūra 19, v. 12. This would be recommended if you are citing many references from the Koran. If only citing a few, write Sūra and v. to avoid confusion.
  • Do not include spiritual text references in a bibliography.
  • Do not utilise ‘Ibid’ for spiritual text references.
  • If your essay will be citing heavily from spiritual texts, refer to the section on Sacred Works in R.M. Ritter Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: OUP, 2003) for further information.
Footnotes

Author, Foreign language title [English title] (edn., Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Cronica de una Muerte Anunciada [Chronicle of a Death Foretold] (4th end., Barcelona: Debolsillo, 2009), 97.

Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique de la Raison Dialectique [Critique of Dialectical Reason] new edn. (Paris: Gallimard, 1985), 34.

Bibliography

Author, Foreign language title [English title] (edn., Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Garcia Marquez, Gabriel, Cronica de una Muerte Anunciada [Chronicle of a Death Foretold] (4th edn., Barcelona: Debolsillo, 2009).

Sartre, Jean-Paul, Critique de la Raison Dialectique [Critique of Dialectical Reason] new edn. (Paris: Gallimard, 1985).

Notes
  • This citation format is for books in a foreign language; including an English translation of the title will help the reader identify the book.
  • The English translation of a title can go in [square brackets] next to the original language title.
  • Only the original language title is italicised
  • You do not have to include a translation of the title into English; you can just leave it as the original language title if desired.
  • Do not include edn., if it is a first edition.
  • Regarding capitalisation, format the title as it appears on the title page of the book.
Footnotes

Author, Title, tr. Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Martin Heidegger, Country Path Conversations, tr. Bret W. Davis (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2010), 36.

Rig Veda: An Anthology: One Hundred and Eight Hymns, Selected, Translated and Annotated, tr. Wendy Doniger (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1981), 255-263.

Bibliography

Author, Title, tr. Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Heidegger, Martin, Country Path Conversations, tr. Bret W. Davis (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2010).

Anon., Rig Veda: An Anthology: One Hundred and Eight Hymns, Selected, Translated and Annotated, tr. Wendy Doniger (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1981).

Notes
  • Cite a book as a translated edition if the details on the book include the name of a translator; they are a type of author and need to be cited.
  • Include tr. and the translator’s name after the title; see the Martin Heidegger example above, where the translator is Bret W. Davis
  • Even if the book title has the word Translated in it, still include tr. and the translator’s name after the title. See the Rig Veda example above.
  • The translator is not the main author; if the book does not have a main author, start the citation with the title for the Footnote entry and Anon., for the Bibliography entry. See the Rig Veda examples above.