Books

Reference list

Author, initial(s) Year of publication, Title, edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

Metcalf, P 2005, Anthropology: the basics, Routledge, Abingdon.

Snow, DR 2010, Archaeology of native North America, Prentice Hall, Boston.

Notes
  • Always include the page number in-text when using a direct quote.
  • Always include the page number(s) when drawing primarily on a particular page or section.
  • It is strongly recommended that you also include the page number(s) when paraphrasing.
  • In-text use p. for a single page (Metcalf 2005, p. 45) and pp. for a page range e.g. (Metcalf 2005, pp. 34–36).

Reference list

Author, initial/s, & Author, Initial/s Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Savage, M, Bagnall, G & Longhurst, B 2005, Globalization and belonging, SAGE, London.

Notes
  • Cite the names of the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book.
  • Unlike the reference list which requires author/s initials, in-text references use author/s surnames only and do not include initials.
  • When the authors names are incorporated into the text of your assignment, as above, use 'and' instead of &.
  • If the names of the authors are in brackets use & before the last author.
  • Always include the page no. in-text when using a direct quote.
  • Always include the page/s number/s when drawing primarily on a particular page or section.
  • It is strongly recommended that you also include the page number/s when paraphrasing.

Reference list

Author, initial/s, Author, Initial/s, Author, Initial/s, & Author, Initial/s Year of publication, Title, edn, Publisher, Place of publication.

Kring, A, Davison, GC, Neale, JM & Johnson, S  2010, Abnormal psychology, 11th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Notes
  • For in-text references, only list the name of the first author followed by et al (meaning 'and others').
  • For the reference list, list all authors – do not use et al.
  • Always include the page no. in-text when using a direct quote.
  • Always include the page/s number/s when drawing primarily on a particular page or section.
  • It is strongly recommended that you also include the page number/s when paraphrasing.

Reference list

Title date, Publisher, Place of publication.

The life of insects 1979,  Silver Burdett Co., Morristown, NJ.

Notes
  • List the item alphabetically in the reference list by the title then date.
  • Do not use Anon or Anonymous.

Reference list

Editor/s, (ed./eds) Year of publication, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

McGrew, A & Poku, NK (eds) 2007, Globalization, development and human security, Polity, Cambridge, UK.

Flood, G (ed.) 2003, The Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell, Oxford.

Notes
  • Use the abbreviation ed. for a single editor and eds (no full stop) for more than one editor.
  • Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition.
  • Write ed., eds and edn in lower case not capitals.

Reference list

Chapter author, initial year of publication, 'chapter title', in editor/s (ed./eds), Book title, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

Gray, E 2009, `The hair of Milton: historicism and literary history', in D Walford Davies (ed.), Romanticism, history, historicism: essays on an orthodoxy, Routledge, New York, pp. 32–42.

Notes
  • Refer to the author of the chapter in-text.
  • Always include the page no. in-text when using a direct quote.
  • It is strongly recommended that you also include the page number/s in-text when paraphrasing.
  • In the Reference List set out the editor's name with initials first then family name.
  • Put the title of the chapter in 'single quotes'. Do not italicise.
  • Put (ed.), for a single editor or (eds), for multiple editors followed by a comma.
  • The pages of the chapter are added after the publication details.

Reference list

Author, Initial/s Date, Title, edn, Publisher, Place of publication.

Killen, R 2009, Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice, 5th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.

Notes
  • Any edition other than the first edition must be included in the reference list citation
  • The edition statement is added after the title, followed by a comma
  • A reprint is not a new edition. It does not need a specific mention
  • Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition

Reference list

Example of a single chapter from a compilation textbook:

Chapter author/s Year, ‘Title of chapter’, in Title of book, Publisher, Location, pp. xx–xx.

Pride, WM, Ferrell, OC, Lukas, BA, Schembri, S & Niininen, O 2015, ‘Marketing planning and strategy in a competitive environment’, in Business Foundations: for La Trobe University, Compiled by La Trobe Business School, Cengage Learning, Melbourne, VIC, pp. 49–94.

Notes
  • This reference example is used when citing a textbook that does not have an identifiable editor or compiler.
  • If citing a textbook that has a separate author for each chapter, with an overall book editor, then cite it as an Edited Book.

Reference list

Review Author, Initial/s Year, 'Title of review if there is one', review of Title of reviewed book by Book Author, Publication Title, Date Published, Section of publication if relevant, page number.

Carroll, S 2002, `The stuff of theatre‘, review of Double act: a life of Tom Stoppard by Ira Nadel, Age, 28 September, Saturday Extra, p. 8.

Review Author, Initial/s Year, 'Title of review if there is one', review of Title of reviewed book by Book Author, Publication Title, Day Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Sussex, L 2012, 'Life in dingo dell', review of Lusting for London: Australian expatriate writers at the hub of empire, 1870-1950 by Peter Morton, Australian Book Review, June, viewed 7 January 2014, <https://www.australianbookreview.com.au/june-2012/993-342-literarystudies-sussex>.

Notes
  • Quality book reviews will be published in newspapers, trade magazines or journals; book reviews from general websites may not be good sources for essays (check with your lecturer or tutor)
  •  Because they feature within publications, the details of those publications need to be included in the citation, i.e. the title of the newspaper or journal and the date it was published are necessary.
  • If you read the review online, such as the Age online, include the URL; for the in-text reference, include the paragraph reference point for your quote; in the reference list, do not include the paragraph reference point.
  • Do not include URLs for online journals or databases, like Factiva, because they are subscription-based and will ask for a login.

Reference list

Author, Initial/s Year, Title, Publisher, date viewed, <URL>.

Stronge, JH 2004, Handbook for qualities of effective teachers, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, viewed 2 October 2016, <http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ez.library.latrobe.edu.au/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/bmxlYmtfXz EyNjA4Nl9fQU41?sid=bf41adb2-1640-4d60-b466-cd1f3c80840a@sessionmgr4007&vid=0&format=EB&rid=1>.

Notes
  • In-text referencing is the same for E-books as print.

Reference list

Entry Author, Initial/s Year, 'Title of entry', in Title of Publication, Editor/s Name (ed.) /(eds), vol. number, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Velioti-Georgopoulos, M 2006 ‘Kinship and Descent’, in HJ Birx (ed.), Encyclopedia of Anthropology, vol. 3, Sage Reference, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Entry Author, Initial/s Year, 'Title of Entry', in Title of Publication, Editor/s Name (ed.) /(eds), vol. number, Publisher, Place of Publication, date viewed, <URL>.

'Achilles' tendon' 2000, in Dictionary of phrase and fable, EC Brewer (ed.), Bartelby.com, viewed 30 November 2010, <http://www.bartleby.com/81/139.html>.

Notes
  • If no author is evident or if a dictionary is being cited, provide the title in-text e.g. The Oxford Dictionary (2010) defines...
  • If a dictionary or encyclopedia title has been cited in-text, you do not have to include it in the reference list
  • If the reference is from Oxford Reference online, add this after the title as the publisher information. e.g. Coper, M 2012, ‘High Court’, in B Galligan, & W Roberts (eds), Oxford companion to Australian politics, Oxford Reference Online
  • If you have used a dictionary or encyclopedia from a website include the date you viewed it and the URL
  • Place the 'title of the entry' in single quotes
  • The title of the dictionary or encyclopedia is always in italics

Reference list

Entry Author, Intial/s Year, 'Title of Entry', in Title of Publication, Editor/s Name (ed.) /(eds), vol. number, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Smith, MJ 1993, 'Anarchy', in The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, J Krieger (ed.), Oxford University Press, New York.

Notes
  • Use italics when including the title of the dictionary/encyclopedia in-text.
  • Use the word in before the title of the publication.

Reference list

Same author different years:

Author, Initial/s Year, Title, Publisher, Place of Publication.

—Year, Title, edn if relevant, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Broome, R 2005, Aboriginal Victorians: a history since 1800, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW.

—2010, Aboriginal Australians: a history since 1788, 4th edn, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW.

 

Same author same year:

Author or Editor, Initial/s (ed.) Yeara, Title, Publisher, Place of Publication.

—Yearb, Title, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Manne, R (ed.) 2005a, Do not disturb: is the media failing Australia?, Black Inc., Melbourne.

—2005b, Left right left: political essays 1977-2005, Black Inc., Melbourne.

Notes

Same author different years.

  • Arrange the in-text citation in chronological order starting with the earliest date first.
  • Use a semicolon to separate the page reference from the date following it.
  • In the reference list begin with the earliest date first.
  • The name of the author can be repeated but it is preferable to use the em dash — with no space before the date.

Same author same year.

  • Distinguish between the titles by adding a lower case letter of the alphabet starting with 'a' after the date with no space.
  • Arrange in alphabetical order by title
In-text referencing

In this example the author Norman Klein is cited by Allan Cameron and the example is quoting Klein.

As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, "the Romantics gloried in the ruins of memory" (cited in Cameron 2008, p. 57).

Reference list

Secondary Book Author Last Name, Initial(s) Year, Title of Secondary source, Publisher, Place of publication.

Cameron, A 2008, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, NY.

Notes
  • This is where the work of one author is cited in another author's work
  • In the Reference List you only need to cite the book that you actually read. In the example above, only the Allan Cameron book is included in the reference list, not the Norman Klein book.

Reference list

Author, Initial/s Year, Title, trans. Initial/s Translator, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Nietzsche, FW 1956, The birth of tragedy: and, the genealogy of morals, trans. F Golffing, Doubleday, Garden City, New York.

Notes
  • For the in-text reference, cite the original author, not the translator
  • This format also applies to compilers, editors and revisers.
  • When the role of a translator, compiler, or reviser, is acknowledged in this type of citation, the initials precede the surname.
  • Use the abbreviations rev., trans., ed./eds or comp./comps as appropriate.

Reference list

Unpublished thesis - Print

Author, Initial/s Year of publication, 'Title of thesis', Award/type of thesis, the Institution, Location of the institution.

Madden, R 2003, 'Aborigines, anthropology and culture : a home-town perspective', PhD thesis, La Trobe University, Bundoora.

Published thesis - Online

Author, Initial/s Year of Publication, 'Title of thesis', Award/type of thesis, the Institution, Location of Institution, viewed date, URL

Hoad, C  2018, 'Emergent role of humour for participants during an outdoor education experience', PhD thesis, La Trobe University, Bundoora, viewed 1 August 2018, http://hdl.handle.net/1959.9/564324

Published Thesis - From a database

Author, Initial/s Year of Publication, 'Title of thesis', Award/type of thesis, the Institution, Location of Institution (Accessed through name of database)

Micir, A 2018, 'Coaches on Coaching: inside the game of women's basketball from those who lived it', Master's thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (accessed through Proquest Dissertations & Theses Global)

Notes
  • Technically a print thesis is not a published work, so the title is not placed in italics
  • Under Award you might also put Masters thesis or Honours thesis
  • Do not put the location if it is obvious from the name of the institution, e.g. University of Melbourne would be enough on its own

In-text Referencing

Direct Quotes:

Always include the page number in-text when using a direct quote.  If the resource does not include page numbers, omit that part of the in-text reference.

Author Notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

 

No author: The life of insects (1979, p.23)  (The life of insects 1979, p. 23)

 

One author: Metcalf (2005, p. 184) (Metcalf 2005, p. 184)

 

Two to three authors: Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 13)  (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 13)

 

Four or more authors: Kring et al. (2010, p. 71) (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72)

 

Group / corporate author: National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010)  (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010)

Author Prominent

Metcalf (2005, p. 184) states that "the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement".

Kring et al. (2010, p. 71) observe that “during the Dark Ages, some people with mental illness were cared for in monasteries, but many simply roamed the countryside”.

Information Prominent

"the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or council of elders, no armies or law enforcement" (Metcalf 2005, p. 184).

It has been suggested that “during the Dark Ages, some people with mental illness were cared for in monasteries, but many simply roamed the countryside” (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72).

"Most drugs of abuse directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine" (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010).

Paraphrasing:

It is strongly recommended that you also include the page number(s) when paraphrasing.

Author Prominent

Metcalf (2005, p. 184) contends that critical anthropology is characterised by reflexivity rather than negativism.

Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 13) argue that the demise of local identities posited by some sociologist over the last two centuries, has not been borne out.

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, dopamine is released in the brain when most drugs of abuse are used (2010).

Information Prominent

Effective teaching is based on several... (Killen 2009, p.10)

The demise of local identities posited by some sociologist over the last two centuries, has not been borne out (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 13).