Internet materials

Reference list

Author(if available) Year (the date the site was last updated), Title of Article on Webpage/Title of Webpage, Name of Organisation or Website, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010, Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: the Science of Addiction, National Institute on Drug Abuse, viewed 1 October 2013, <http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drugs-brain>.

Notes
  • If there is no author or organisation name begin the reference with the title of the webpage.
  • If the webpage belongs to an organisation, they may also be the author of the content if a person as author cannot be identified.
  • If there are no page numbers, omit that part of the in-text reference.  See In-text Referencing (below) for more information.

Reference list

Author Year of Publication, Title of website or section, Publisher, viewed day month year, <URL>.

David Jones 2012, The Story of David Jones, David Jones, viewed 4 February 2013, <http://www.davidjones.com.au/About-David-Jones/The-Story-of-David-Jones>.

Wesfarmers Limited 2013, Corporate Governance, Wesfarmers Limited, viewed 4 February 2013, <http://www.wesfarmers.com.au/about-us/corporate-governance.html>.

Reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s) (or corporation name) Year (the date the site was last updated), Title of Document, Name of Organization or Website, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2016, Focus on skills: building a better national VET system, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, viewed 21 June 2019, <https://www.australianchamber.com.au/publications/position-paper-focus-on-skills-building-a-better-national-vet-system/>.

Notes
  • If there is no author begin the reference with the title of the document.
  • Include page numbers in-text if it is a long document.  If there are no page numbers, omit that part of the in-text reference.
  • Use n.d. if there is no date.

Reference list

Author Surname, Initial Year, Online video title, format (online video), Day Month (video was posted), name of organisation or website, viewed day month year, <URL>.

LTULibrary 2010, Why can't I just Google?, online video, 9 February, La Trobe University, viewed 20 January 2011, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bp-ZGFd5o5A>.

Streaming video (from a library database)

Title date of recording, format (streaming video), publisher, viewed day month year, Database Name database.

World history in video 2011, streaming video, Ruth Diskin Films, viewed 12 June 2019, Alexander Street Press database.

Notes
  • If no proper name is given, the authors' username may be used instead.

Reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)/Username/Handle Year (published), Title/First few words of tweet/message, Name of website, Day Month (of status update), viewed day month year, <URL>.

BP Public Relations 2010, Catastrophe is a strong..., Twitter, 24 May, viewed 10 January 2011, <http://twitter.com/BPGlobalPR/status/14583761878>.

Office of the Prime Minister 2011, Prime Minister Gillard today announced..., Facebook, 13 January, viewed 20 January 2011, <http://www.facebook.com/juliagillard/posts/101538903255112>.

Notes
  • There are no formal guidelines for citing social media sources; a common approach is to based them on a reference to a website
  • Based on a website citation, the social media platform would be the Name of the website
  • The main addition to the website reference format is the inclusion of the Day and Month the update was published
  • If there isn't a proper author name, user the username/handle instead
  • If citing multiple entries from one day, include the time after the date, e.g. 8 January; 9:50 AM

Reference list

Author Surname, Initial Year, Title of podcast (vodcast), format, Day Month (of upload), name of organisation or website, viewed day month year, <URL>.

The war on fish 2010, podcast, 9 July, La Trobe University, viewed 10 January 2011, <http://www.latrobe.edu.au/marketing/assets/podcasts/2010/100709-denise-russell.mp3>.

Finn, J & Norman, M 2010, Have coconut, will travel, vodcast, 23 April, La Trobe University, viewed 10 January 2011, <http://www.latrobe.edu.au/news/videos/octopus-coconut>.

Notes
  • If the podcast has no recognisable author, start with the title and put the year after the title. Use the title in the in-text referencing.

Reference list

Author Surname, Initial Year, Blog Post Title, Title of Blog, format, Day Month (of post), viewed day month year, <URL>.

Henderson, D 2010, Has the word 'conspiracy' lost its meaning?, Library of Economics and Liberty, blog post, 13 December, viewed 21 December 2010, <http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2010/12/has_the_word_co.html>.

Thesis Whisperer 2013, Wormhole literature, The Thesis Whisperer, blog post, 3 April, viewed 8 January 2014, <http://thesiswhisperer.com/2013/04/03/the-wormhole-incident/>.

Notes
  • If no proper name is given, the author's username may be used instead
  • If the author puts multiple posts up on the same day, include the time the entry was posted.- e.g. 12 November 13:53
  • If you are referencing a comment from a blog, use the name of the commenter instead of the author of the blog post and change the format to blog comment
  • If you are using the whole blog and not an individual post, do not include the Blog Post Title and change the format to blog

Reference list

Author (artist, person or organisation responsible, if available) Year, Title of image (or a description), description of item (eg image), name of organisation or website, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Jorgensen, L 2010, Sunlight illuminates the ice-covered Cleveland Harbour West Pierhead Lighthouse, image, ABC News, viewed 17 December 2010, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-12-17/sunlight-illuminates-the-ice-covered-cleveland/2360422>.

Notes
  • Place the in-text reference immediately under the image
  • Description : Use Image for Photographs or graphics

Reference list

Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list

 

Notes
  • Personal communications includes letters, emails, interviews, etc.
  • Be sure to get permission from the person being cited before you use their details
  • Put all the details of the personal communication in-text

In-text Referencing

Direct Quotes:

Always include the page number in-text when using a direct quote.  If the resource does not include page numbers, omit that part of the in-text reference.

Author Notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

 

No author: The life of insects (1979, p.23)  (The life of insects 1979, p. 23)

 

One author: Metcalf (2005, p. 184) (Metcalf 2005, p. 184)

 

Two to three authors: Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 13)  (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 13)

 

Four or more authors: Kring et al. (2010, p. 71) (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72)

 

Group / corporate author: National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010)  (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010)

Author Prominent

Metcalf (2005, p. 184) states that "the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement".

Kring et al. (2010, p. 71) observe that “during the Dark Ages, some people with mental illness were cared for in monasteries, but many simply roamed the countryside”.

Information Prominent

"the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or council of elders, no armies or law enforcement" (Metcalf 2005, p. 184).

It has been suggested that “during the Dark Ages, some people with mental illness were cared for in monasteries, but many simply roamed the countryside” (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72).

"Most drugs of abuse directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine" (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010).

Paraphrasing:

It is strongly recommended that you also include the page number(s) when paraphrasing.

Author Prominent

Metcalf (2005, p. 184) contends that critical anthropology is characterised by reflexivity rather than negativism.

Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 13) argue that the demise of local identities posited by some sociologist over the last two centuries, has not been borne out.

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, dopamine is released in the brain when most drugs of abuse are used (2010).

Information Prominent

Effective teaching is based on several... (Killen 2009, p.10)

The demise of local identities posited by some sociologist over the last two centuries, has not been borne out (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 13).