|rev.||revised / reviser|
|c.||circa, use when you are unsure of a date (c. 1993)|
|et al.||and others|
|pp.||plural pages e.g. p. 32-45|
Referencing multiple works in-text
Editors, compilers, translators, revisers
Secondary sources and prefaces
Kafka, F 2005, The Trial, Hesperus Press, London. Foreword by Zadie Smith.
Neyland, MG 1999,
— & Duncan, F 1998,
In text referencing
(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)
Paraphrasing or summarising
It was found....(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)
The Pew Hispanic Center (2004) found that
Place of Publication
Date of Publication
Russell, B 2009 (1948), Human knowledge: Its scope and limits, Routledge, viewed 12 June 2019, <https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ez.library.latrobe.edu.au/lib/latrobe/detail.action?docID=412932>
The Harvard style recommends that direct quotes be enclosed within single quotation marks, however, if an essay is submitted through Turnitin enclose quotes in double quotations marks.
Block quotations should be used if a quotation is more than 30 words. Format the text of the quote to a smaller sized font and indent the whole quote from the left hand margin. The block quotation should be introduced with a colon:
Ironically, Menzies’s commitment to education had produced a large population of university students, often schooled in the critique of the new social sciences and whose affluence and idealism made them ready and eager to overthrow the old order associated with Menzies and Calwell. Across the country the old concern to preserve the status quo, to converse uniformity, to safeguard the Australian way of life and the family home from subversion was giving way to demands for change (Grimshaw et al. 2006, p. 300).
If a resource does not have page numbers, omit that part of the in-text reference. For example,
"Most drugs of abuse directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine" (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010).
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2010, Issues paper: youth employment, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, viewed 16 December 2010, <http://www.acci.asn.au/text_files/issues_papers/2010/Youth%20 Employment%20Paper%20May%202010_final.pdf>.
Brett, J 2009, 'Libs risk becoming a down-market protest party', Age, 5 December, p. 6.
Cameron, A 2008, Modular narratives in contemporary cinema, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, NY.
Carlin, TY & Ford, G 2006, 'A governance perspective on executive options plans - some Australian empirical evidence', Australian Accounting Review, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 75-84.
Gittins, R 2010, 'Suits us to be deluded on climate,' Age, 17 November, viewed 6 December 2014, <http://www.theage.com.au/environment/climate-change/suits-us-to-be-deluded-on-climate-20101117-17wyp.html>.
Gray, E 2009, `The hair of Milton: historicism and literary history', in D Walford Davies (ed.), Romanticism, history, historicism: essays on an orthodoxy, Routledge, New York, pp. 32-42.
Jorgensen, L 2010, Sunlight illuminates the ice-covered Cleveland Harbour West Pierhead Lighthouse, image, ABC News, viewed 17 December 2010, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-12-17/sunlight-illuminates-the-ice-covered-cleveland/2360422>.
Lee, H 2007, 'Transforming transnationalism: second generation Tongans overseas', Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 157-178.
National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010, Drugs, brains, and behavior: the science of addiction, National Institute on Drug Abuse, viewed 1 October 2013, <http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drugs-brain>.
Schulman, C 2012, Internet service providers in Australia, industry report, IBISWorld, viewed 9 August 2013, retrieved from IBISWorld Database.
Smith, MJ 1993, 'Anarchy', in The Oxford companion to the politics of the world, J Krieger (ed.), Oxford University Press, New York.
Snow, DR 2010, Archaeology of native North America, Prentice Hall, Boston.
Victoria, Legislative Assembly 2000, Parliamentary Debates, vol. 447, pp. 2144-2149.
Wallace, P 2013, 'Gender & sexuality' PowerPoint slides, SOC1SAC, La Trobe University, viewed 19 January 2014.
Format the title in italics. Only capitalise the first word of the title and any proper nouns within the title e.g. World society and the Middle East: reconstructions in regional politics.
Take the title from the title page of the book, not the front cover or the spine.
Enclose titles of book chapters in single quotation marks and do not italicise e.g.
Casey, M 2013, 'Bold, black and brilliant: Aboriginal Australian drama', in B Wheeler (ed.), A companion to Australian Aboriginal literature, Rochester, NY. pp. 155-162.
Format the title in italics. Capitalise all the main words e.g. Studies in Higher Education.
Format the title in italics and capitalise all the main words. If the first word of the title is 'The' leave it out use Australian or Age or Sydney Morning Herald.
Titles within Titles
If there is a title referred to within the title put it in single quotes e.g. Imperialism, reform and the making of Englishness in 'Jane Eyre'.