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Style notes

This guide has now been superseded.
If you are required to use 'Harvard' style referencing please check with your subject coordinator as to which version of Harvard to use.



ed. editor (single)
eds editors
edn edition
comp. compiler
comps compilers
trans. translated
rev. revised / reviser
n.d. no date
c. circa, use when you are unsure of a date (c. 1993)
et al. and others
vol. volume
no. number
p. page
pp. plural pages e.g. p. 32-45



Referencing multiple works in-text

  • When referencing multiple works by the same author in-text, arrange the citations by year of publication. Give the authors' surname once and for each subsequent work give only the date e.g. (Smith, 2002, 2004).


  • When referencing multiple works by the same author in the same year, differentiate in-text by adding a lower case letter after the year, e.g. 2003a, 2003b. In the Reference List alphabetise by author, then title and differentiate by adding the same corresponding letter after the year.


  • When referencing different authors with the same surname, include the authors' initials in the in-text citation, e.g. (Snow, DR 2010, pp. 34-36) or DR Snow (2010) presented the idea that...


  • When citing 2 or more works by different authors in the one instance, arrange the in-text citation in the order as given in the reference list with a semicolon (;) in between e.g. (Adams 2004; Smith 2004).


Editors, compilers, translators, revisers

  • No author - reference the work by its title; list it alphabetically in the reference list by title; do not use Anon or Anonymous.


  • When referencing an edited version of an original work, list the entry in the reference list under the original author's surname and write ed. before the name(s) of the editor(s). Do not put this ed. in brackets. If there is more than one editor, still write ed., not eds.


  • As with editors, compilers, translators and revisers are named after the title with comp., trans. or rev. where the ed. is written.


  • When an editor, compiler, translator or reviser is the primary author, the abbreviation is included in brackets after their name, e.g. In-text: Flood (ed. 2003)...; Reference list: Flood, G (ed.) 2003.


Secondary sources and prefaces

  • When referencing a secondary source (an author within another author's work), include both authors for the in-text citation, e.g. (Klein, cited in Cameron 2008, p. 57) and only list the work you used in the reference list.


  • When referencing a preface, introduction or foreword written by someone other than the primary author, provide both names for the in-text citation, e.g. Smith (in Kafka 2005) discusses... or (Smith, in Kafka 2005). The reference list can include the name of the contributor at the end of the reference, e.g.:

Kafka, F 2005, The Trial, Hesperus Press, London. Foreword by Zadie Smith.

  • In the reference list, a single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry beginning with the same name. An em-dash can be used to replace that part of the entry that is repeated, e.g.:

Neyland, MG 1999,

— & Duncan, F 1998,


Sources created by First Nations people

  • When referencing materials by First Nations creators, it is important to note the Nation or Country and/or language group of the person or community who created them.

In text referencing

(Investigators, Year)

(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)

Paraphrasing or summarising

It was found....(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)


The Pew Hispanic Center (2004) found that


Place of Publication

  • Do not use full stops in abbreviated place names, i.e. NSW, not N.S.W.; UK, not U.K.
  • When two or more places of publication are listed, only reference the first city.
  • If the place of publication is not well-known add the state or country e.g. Abingdon, UK.

Date of Publication

  • Only reference the year of publication.
  • Use n.d. if the date cannot be located.
  • For a possible or dubious date, use a question mark, e.g. (Cope 2003?).
  • c. (meaning circa, about) is used when a publication date has been established with some accuracy and guesswork.
  • Forthcoming publications are written as Porter (Forthcoming) or (Porter Forthcoming).
  • When a resource has two dates (e.g. an electronic version of a republished book), use the date of the version you have viewed in the in-text reference, e.g. Russell (2009).  In the reference list entry add the original date of publication in the parentheses after the publication date of the version you are viewing, e.g.

Russell, B 2009 (1948), Human knowledge: Its scope and limits, Routledge, viewed 12 June 2019, <>



The Harvard style recommends that direct quotes be enclosed within single quotation marks, however,  if an essay is submitted through Turnitin enclose quotes in double quotations marks.

Block quotations

Block quotations should be used if a quotation is more than 30 words. Format the text of the quote to a smaller sized font and indent the whole quote from the left hand margin.  The block quotation should be introduced with a colon:

Ironically, Menzies’s commitment to education had produced a large population of university students, often schooled in the critique of the new social sciences and whose affluence and idealism made them ready and eager to overthrow the old order associated with Menzies and Calwell. Across the country the old concern to preserve the status quo, to converse uniformity, to safeguard the Australian way of life and the family home from subversion was giving way to demands for change (Grimshaw et al. 2006, p. 300).

Page numbers

If a resource does not have page numbers, omit that part of the in-text reference.  For example,

"Most drugs of abuse directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine" (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010).


Reference List

  • Do not include personal communications in the reference list.
  • For encyclopedias and dictionaries - do not include in the reference list if the title is referred to in the body of the essay.


  • Arrange references alphabetically by the author's surname.
  • More than one work by the same author, arrange by date with the earliest publication first.
  • Place a blank line between entries to make the reference list easier to read.

Page numbers

  • For books, page numbers are not needed in the reference list.
  • For journal articles and book chapters, page numbers must be included at the end of the citation.
  • Use the abbreviation p. for a single page and pp. for a page range, e.g. pp.122-145.


  • After the date, all the elements of the reference are separated by a comma. A full stop concludes the reference.Reference list example


Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2010, Issues paper: youth employment, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, viewed 16 December 2010, < Employment%20Paper%20May%202010_final.pdf>.

Brett, J 2009, 'Libs risk becoming a down-market protest party', Age, 5 December, p. 6.

Cameron, A 2008, Modular narratives in contemporary cinema, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, NY.

Carlin, TY & Ford, G 2006, 'A governance perspective on executive options plans - some Australian empirical evidence', Australian Accounting Review, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 75-84.

Gittins, R 2010, 'Suits us to be deluded on climate,' Age, 17 November, viewed 6 December 2014, <>.

Gray, E 2009, `The hair of Milton: historicism and literary history', in D Walford Davies (ed.), Romanticism, history, historicism: essays on an orthodoxy, Routledge, New York, pp. 32-42.

Jorgensen, L 2010, Sunlight illuminates the ice-covered Cleveland Harbour West Pierhead Lighthouse, image, ABC News, viewed 17 December 2010, <>.

Lee, H 2007, 'Transforming transnationalism: second generation Tongans overseas', Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 157-178.

National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010, Drugs, brains, and behavior: the science of addiction, National Institute on Drug Abuse, viewed 1 October 2013, <>.

Schulman, C 2012, Internet service providers in Australia, industry report, IBISWorld, viewed 9 August 2013, retrieved from IBISWorld Database.

Smith, MJ 1993, 'Anarchy', in The Oxford companion to the politics of the world, J Krieger (ed.), Oxford University Press, New York.

Snow, DR 2010, Archaeology of native North America, Prentice Hall, Boston.

Victoria, Legislative Assembly 2000, Parliamentary Debates, vol. 447, pp. 2144-2149.

Wallace, P 2013, 'Gender & sexuality' PowerPoint slides, SOC1SAC, La Trobe University, viewed 19 January 2014.


Book Titles

Format the title in italics.  Only capitalise the first word of the title and any proper nouns within the title e.g. World society and the Middle East: reconstructions in regional politics.

Take the title from the title page of the book, not the front cover or the spine.

Enclose titles of book chapters in single quotation marks and do not italicise e.g.

Casey, M 2013, 'Bold, black and brilliant: Aboriginal Australian drama', in B Wheeler (ed.), A companion to Australian Aboriginal literature, Rochester, NY. pp. 155-162.

Journal Titles

Format the title in italics. Capitalise all the main words e.g. Studies in Higher Education.

Newspaper Titles

Format the title in italics and capitalise all the main words.  If the first word of the title is 'The' leave it out use Australian or Age or Sydney Morning Herald.

Titles within Titles

If there is a title referred to within the title put it in single quotes e.g. Imperialism, reform and the making of Englishness in 'Jane Eyre'.