Case name (Year) Volume number Abbreviated name of report Series Page Reference
Beasley v Francis (2008) 237 CLR 1
Cases should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically
Volume number is listed if there is more than one volume
Abbreviated name of the Report Series eg. CLR for Commonwealth Law Reports, FLR for Federal Law Reports, VR for Victorian Reports
Page Reference is the page on which the report of the case begins
Title Year (Jurisdiction) Section
Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (Cwlth)
Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth) s. 4
Title of legislation should be cited exactly, capitalisation unaltered regardless of the referencing style
First reference to an Act or Statutory Rule should be cited with their short formal title, in italics, exactly and in full. In subsequent references, title can be in roman type (not italicised) and date omitted
Jurisdiction can be made obvious by using it within the writing, or in parentheses in roman type after the date e.g. (Vic) (Cwlth) (WA) etc.
Titles of Acts of the parliaments of other countries should be presented in roman type (not italicised), e.g. The Sale of Goods Act 2000 (UK)
Acts should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically
When citing a reference to a Section of an Act, the abbreviations s. and ss. can be used, though they should never start a sentence
Always include the page number in-text when using a direct quote. If the resource does not include page numbers, omit that part of the in-text reference.
Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,
No author: The life of insects (1979, p. 23) (The life of insects 1979, p. 23)
One author: Metcalf (2005, p. 184) (Metcalf 2005, p. 184)
Two to three authors: Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 13) (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 13)
Four or more authors: Kring et al. (2010, p. 71) (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72)
Group / corporate author: National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010) (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010)
Metcalf (2005, p. 184) states that "the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or councils of elders, no armies or law enforcement".
Kring et al. (2010, p. 71) observe that “during the Dark Ages, some people with mental illness were cared for in monasteries, but many simply roamed the countryside”.
"the Nuer of southern Sudan lacked any institutions of governance; no chiefs or council of elders, no armies or law enforcement" (Metcalf 2005, p. 184).
It has been suggested that “during the Dark Ages, some people with mental illness were cared for in monasteries, but many simply roamed the countryside” (Kring et al. 2010, p. 72).
"Most drugs of abuse directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine" (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2010).
It is strongly recommended that you also include the page number(s) when paraphrasing.
Metcalf (2005, p. 184) contends that critical anthropology is characterised by reflexivity rather than negativism.
Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst (2005, p. 13) argue that the demise of local identities posited by some sociologist over the last two centuries, has not been borne out.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, dopamine is released in the brain when most drugs of abuse are used (2010).
Effective teaching is based on several... (Killen 2009, p.10)
The demise of local identities posited by some sociologist over the last two centuries, has not been borne out (Savage, Bagnall & Longhurst 2005, p. 13).
If you come across any inconsistencies with the referencing examples in ART, send your feedback to email@example.com.
Important note: These guidelines have been designed to be used in university coursework, e.g. essays, reports, presentations. For work that is required to be published, or communicated to an audience wider than the University, please consult the appropriate publication manual, your publisher, the University Copyright Officer, and / or your research supervisor for guidance.