Media

Footnotes

Creator or Director Name (dir.), Title (Production Company/Distributor, Year).

John Ford (dir.), The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (Paramount Pictures, 1962).

Billy Wilder (dir.), Double Indemnity (Paramount Pictures, 1944).

Ethan Coen and Joel Coen (dirs.), No Country for Old Men (Paramount Vantage, 2007).

The Ethics of Consumption (Milk Bottle Productions, 2002).

Bibliography

Creator or Director Name (dir.), Title (Production Company/Distributor, year).

Coen, Ethan and Coen, Joel (dirs.), No Country for Old Men (Paramount Vantage, 2007).

The Ethics of Consumption (Milk Bottle Productions, 2002).

Ford, John (dir.), The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (Paramount Pictures, 1962).

Wilder, Billy (dir.), Double Indemnity (Paramount Pictures, 1944).

Notes
  • For movies that have an identifiable director, include their name followed by (dir.) for director or (dirs.) for directors.
  • If a film doesn’t have an identifiable creator, leave the name field blank, see the Ethics of Consumption example above.
  • When referencing a movie or documentary the date must refer to the year of the theatre release. Note that the year DVD was released may differ from the theatre release. Check the IMDB website for the official year release.
  • If a film has numerous production/distribution companies, only cite the first one listed.
  • Distributor refers to the company that released the DVD; it’s not necessarily the same as the production company that issued the theatre release.
  • When referencing a movie that is an alternate version, special edition or director’s cut, include this after the title, followed by the [DVD release year], e.g. Blade Runner: The Final Cut [2007] (Warner Bros., 1982); the original was released in 1982, but this edit is known as The Final Cut and there are enough changes to the original to justify citing this edition with its actual DVD release year.
  • Generally, use common sense when deciding whether or not to cite a remastered DVD version which has a different date. If nothing has changed with the content of the movie (no additional scenes or noticeable differences, just improved visual and sound effects) then just cite the original theatre release year.
  • Do not include the format, i.e. [film], [dvd], [documentary]
  • This citation example is guided by the rules in section 15.14.2 in R.M. Ritter, Oxford Style Manual (London: OUP, 2003).
Footnotes

Author/s, Title of video [format], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Allende and Pinochet in Chile [video], (Khan Academy, 9 May 2011) <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um92GZLCQ_Q&feature=edu&list=PLAC6B9F15C835224C>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Colin Firth Helps the People Speak [video], (BBC World News and Radio, 30 Nov. 2012) <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-radio-and-tv-20296573>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012) <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Call for a Commonwealth States Deal on GST Revenue [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 30 Nov. 2012) in iTunes, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Author/s, Title of video [format], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Allende and Pinochet in Chile [video], (Khan Academy, 9 May 2011) <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um92GZLCQ_Q&feature=edu&list=PLAC6B9F15C835224C>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Call for a Commonwealth States Deal on GST Revenue [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 30 Nov. 2012) in iTunes, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Colin Firth Helps the People Speak [video], (BBC World News and Radio, 30 Nov. 2012) <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-radio-and-tv-20296573>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012) <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • When there is no author, list the videos alphabetically by title in the bibliography
  • Use the full date of creation if available, otherwise just the year.
  • For YouTube videos, the up-loader of the content is the publisher (for citation purposes)
  • To reference an online video which is a vodcast :

-If you viewed it online, include the URL of the episode

-If you viewed it through iTunes, include via iTunes instead of the URL

-If you viewed it through Windows Media Player or Real Player, include the URL of the episode

Footnotes

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Disadvantaged Australian Kids: Four Corners Reports on What it’s Like for Australian Children Who are Growing Up Poor’, Four Corners, ABC1, 24 Sept. 2012 [television programme].

 

Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

Immigration Nation: the Secret History of Us, Part 2, SBS1, 16 Jan. 2011 [television programme].

The Thick of It, Season 4 Episode 6, BBC4, 27 Oct. 2012 [television programme].

 

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Queen’, Video Killed the Radio Star: Artist’s View, Series 3 Episode 5, ABC1, 16 Nov. 2012 [television programme].

 

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/Series number Episode number (Distributor, year) [television programme].

‘Everything is Broken’, True Blood, Season 3 Episode 9 (HBO Home Video, 2011) [television programme].

Bibliography

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Disadvantaged Australian Kids: Four Corners Reports on What it’s Like for Australian Children Who are Growing Up Poor’, Four Corners, ABC1, 24 Sept. 2012 [television programme].

 

Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

Immigration Nation: the Secret History of Us, Part 2, SBS1, 16 Jan. 2011 [television programme].

The Thick of It, Season 4 Episode 6, BBC4, 27 Oct. 2012 [television programme].

 

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Queen’, Video Killed the Radio Star: Artist’s View, Series 3 Episode 5, ABC1, 16 Nov. 2012 [television programme].

 

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/Series number Episode number (Distributor, year) [television programme].

‘Everything is Broken’, True Blood, Season 3 Episode 9 (HBO Home Video, 2011) [television programme].

Notes
  • If a TV episode is viewed on DVD include (Distributor, Year); the year should refer to when the DVD was released, not when the episode was originally broadcast. See the True Blood example above.
  • If a program was viewed online, i.e. ABC iView, SBS-on-Demand, OR privately downloaded, still cite the original broadcaster and date of air. Do not include the format you used to view a programme.
  • If the episode does not have its own title, begin the citation with the Series Title, followed by Series and Episode information. See The Thick of It example above.
  • The date should refer to the original broadcast date or DVD release year; not the date you viewed it.
  • If you do not have the original broadcast date, or the season and episode details, consult the IMDB website.
  • Author information does not have to be included for a television series.
  • You do not need to refer to the minute mark when footnoting.
  • The bibliography entry will be the same as the footnote, organised alphabetically by the episode or series title.
  • Do not group media references together in the bibliography; organise them alphabetically by title amongst other reference types.
  • At the end of the citation include [television programme] to clarify the resource type for the reader.
Footnotes

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/Series number Episode number (Distributor, year) [television programme].

‘Disadvantaged Australian Kids: Four Corners Reports on What it’s Like for Australian Children Who are Growing Up Poor’, Four Corners, ABC1, 24 Sept. 2012 [television programme].

Immigration Nation: the Secret History of Us, Part 2, SBS1, 16 Jan. 2011 [television programme].

The Thick of It, Season 4 Episode 6, BBC4, 27 Oct. 2012 [television programme].

‘Queen’, Video Killed the Radio Star: Artist’s View, Series 3 Episode 5, ABC1, 16 Nov. 2012 [television programme].

‘Everything is Broken’, True Blood, Season 3 Episode 9 (HBO Home Video, 2011) [television programme].

Bibliography

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/ Series number Episode number, Broadcast network, Broadcast date [television programme].

‘Title of Episode’, Title of Series, Season/Series number Episode number (Distributor, year) [television programme].

‘Disadvantaged Australian Kids: Four Corners Reports on What it’s Like for Australian Children Who are Growing Up Poor’, Four Corners, ABC1, 24 Sept. 2012 [television programme].

Immigration Nation: the Secret History of Us, Part 2, SBS1, 16 Jan. 2011 [television programme].

The Thick of It, Season 4 Episode 6, BBC4, 27 Oct. 2012 [television programme].

‘Queen’, Video Killed the Radio Star: Artist’s View, Series 3 Episode 5, ABC1, 16 Nov. 2012 [television programme].

‘Everything is Broken’, True Blood, Season 3 Episode 9 (HBO Home Video, 2011) [television programme].

Notes
  • If a TV episode is viewed on DVD include (Distributor, Year); year should refer to when the DVD was released, not when the episode was originally broadcast. See the True Blood example above.
  • If a program was viewed online, i.e. ABC iView, SBS-on-Demand, OR privately downloaded, still cite the original broadcaster and date of air.
  • If the episode does not have its own title, begin the citation with the Series Title, followed by Series and Episode information. See The Thick of It example above.
  • The date should refer to the original broadcast date or DVD release year; not the date you viewed it.
  • If you do not have the original broadcast date, or the season and episode details consult the IMDB website.
  • Author information does not have to be included for a television series.
  • You do not need to refer to the minute mark when footnoting.
  • The bibliography entry will be the same as the footnote, organised alphabetically by the episode or series title.
  • Do not group media together in the bibliography; organise alphabetically by title amongst other reference types
  • At the end of the citation include [television programme] to clarify the resource type for the reader.
Footnotes

Artist/Composer, Title (Recording company, catalogue/standard number, year) [format].

Artist/Composer, ‘Song Title’, in Album Title (Recording company, catalogue/standard number, year) [format].

Interviewee, ‘Title of interview’ [sound recording] (Publisher/Institution name, year), <URL>, access date.

Pedro Rivera, ‘Violencia en Los Angeles’, in Corridos y Narcocorridos: Un Viaje al Mundo del la Musica de las Drogas, Armas y Guerrilleros (Fonovisa compact disc, SDCD-6161, 2001) [CD].

Hans Zimmer, The Dark Knight Rises (WaterTower Music, 2012) [CD].

Viola Tait, ‘Viola Tait interviewed by Michelle Potter’ [sound recording] (National Library of Australia, 1994), <http://nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn513201>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Artist/Composer, Title (Recording company, catalogue/standard number, year) [format].

Artist/Composer, ‘Song Title’, in Album Title (Recording company, catalogue/standard number, year) [format].

Interviewee, ‘Title of interview’ [sound recording] (Publisher/Institution name, year), <URL>, access date.

Corridos y Narcocorridos: Un Viaje al Mundo del la Musica de las Drogas, Armas y Guerrilleros (Fonovisa compact disc, SDCD-6161, 2001) [CD].

Zimmer, Hans, The Dark Knight Rises (WaterTower Music, 2012) [CD].

Tait, Viola, ‘Viola Tait interviewed by Michelle Potter’ [sound recording] (National Library of Australia, 1994), <http://nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn513201>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • The ‘author’ can be the artist, composer, conductor, or ensemble. If there isn’t an author, start the citation with the title
  • If the work is by various artists, start the citation with the title of the sound recording
  • Spoken recordings can be listed under the speaker, the author or the title
  • When referencing a particular piece on a compilation recording, list the artist/composer of that piece first, followed by the title of the piece, then the name of the CD. See the Pedro Rivera example. The bibliography would just list the title of the whole sound recording.
  • A catalogue or standard number can be included if the work is rare or scarce. Well known recordings can omit the number, e.g. The Dark Knight Rises example above is well known, so the number really isn’t needed. However, the Corridos y Narcocorridos example may be difficult to find, so the catalogue/standard number will be helpful.
Footnotes

Author/s, ‘Title of podcast episode’, Title of Series of podcasts [podcast or vodcast], (Publisher, Date) <URL> or in iTunes, access date.

Clare Wright, ‘How Australian Women Won the Vote’, Australian History [podcast], (La Trobe University 2009) in iTunes U, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Marcia Langton, ‘Lecture 1 – Changing the Paradigm: Mining Companies, Native Title and Aboriginal Australians’, 2012 Boyer Lectures [podcast], (ABC Radio National 2012) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/boyerlectures/boyers-ep1/4305610>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo, [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012) <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Author/s, ‘Title of podcast episode’, Title of Series of podcasts [podcast or vodcast], (Publisher, date) <URL> or in iTunes, access date.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo, [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012) <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Langton, Marcia ‘Lecture 1 – Changing the Paradigm: Mining Companies, Native Title and Aboriginal Australians’, 2012 Boyer Lectures [podcast], (ABC Radio National 2012) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/boyerlectures/boyers-ep1/4305610>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Wright, Clare, ‘How Australian Women Won the Vote’, Australian History [podcast], (La Trobe University 2009) in iTunes U, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  •  How you reference a podcast/vodcast depends on how you listened to/viewed it.

-If you listened to/viewed online, include the URL of the episode

-If you listened to/viewed through iTunes, include via iTunes instead of the URL

-If you listened to/viewed through Windows Media Player or Real Player, include the URL of the webpage where you access the episode

  • If there isn’t a Series Title, italicise the name of the podcast, e.g. Fierce Clashes in Cairo is the name of the podcast and it doesn’t belong to a series so it is italicised.
  • When there is no author, list the podcasts/vodcasts alphabetically by title in the bibliography
  • Use the full date for a podcast/vodcast if available, otherwise just the year.
Footnotes

Reporter/Author/s, ‘Title of Programme’, Title of Series (City or country, Publisher, Date of Broadcast) [radio program].

Tom Tilley, ‘The Dark Arts of Student Politics’, Hack (Australia, Triple J, 21 Aug. 2012) [radio program].

‘Anime: The Philosophy of Japanese Animation’, The Philosopher’s Zone (Australia: ABC Radio National, 5 Aug. 2012) [radio program].

Bibliography

Reporter/Author/s, ‘Title of Programme’, Title of Series, (City or country, Publisher, Date of Broadcast) [radio program].

Tilley, Tom, ‘The Dark Arts of Student Politics’, Hack (Australia, Triple J, 21 Aug. 2012) [radio program].

‘Anime: The Philosophy of Japanese Animation’, The Philosopher’s Zone (Australia: ABC Radio National, 5 Aug. 2012) [radio program].

Notes
  • Use this citation example to reference a radio program only if you listened to it at the time of broadcast. If you actually listened to the podcast version at a later date, use the podcast citation example.
  • If the radio program is national, include the country name instead of the city.
  • If available, include the name of the reporter or author of the programme/story, but not the host of the program series. For example, the Triple J program Hack has a presenter and reporters. Only the reporter of the story, Tom Tilley, is included in the citation, not the presenter, Sophie McNeill.
Footnotes

Author, ‘Title of speech’, speech in the House of Lords, date, <URL>, paragraph, access date.

Jurisdiction, Parliamentary Debates, Chamber of the House, Date, page reference (Name and Position of speaker).

Author/s, Title of video [video], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Lord Bilimoria, ‘Minority Ethnic and Religious Communities: Cultural and Economic Contribution – Motion to Take Note’, speech in the House of Lords, 24 May 2012, <http://www.theyworkforyou.com/lords/?gid=2012-05-24a.865.2>, 4, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 9 Oct. 2012, 11581 (Julia Gillard, Prime Minister).

Julia Gillard’s Speech Over Opposition’s Sexism, Misogyny [video], (newsInworld, 9 Oct. 2012) <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfo3SGIiSE0>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Jurisdiction, Parliamentary Debates, Chamber of the House, Date, page reference (Name and Position of speaker).

Author/s, Title of video [video], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Author, ‘Title of speech’, speech in the House of Lords, date, <URL>, access date.

Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 9 Oct. 2012, 11581 (Julia Gillard, Prime Minister).

Julia Gillard’s Speech Over Opposition’s Sexism, Misogyny [video] (newsInworld, 9 Oct. 2012), <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfo3SGIiSE0>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Lord Bilimoria, ‘Minority Ethnic and Religious Communities: Cultural and Economic Contribution – Motion to Take Note’, speech in the House of Lords, 24 May 2012, <http://www.theyworkforyou.com/lords/?gid=2012-05-24a.865.2>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • How you cite a speech, interview or sound recording will depend on how you accessed the resource. See the examples under Footnote and Bibliography for the various formats.
  • In the House of Lords example above, only the Lord’s official title is needed when citing the author. Lord Bilimoria’s actual full name is not required because he delivered the speech in the House of Lords under his Lordship title. If the same person delivered a speech at a public function their actual name would be used for the author field.
  • Some speeches may be available in a variety of formats; with the Julia Gillard examples above, how you refer to this speech will depend on how you access it.
  • If you read the official Hansard transcript, cite it as a Parliamentary Debate. See the Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates example above. And if needed, refer to the Parliamentary Debates citation example under Government Publications.
  • If you viewed the speech online via YouTube, cite it as an online video. See the Julia Gillard’s Speech Over Opposition’s Sexism, Misogyny example above. Note that with YouTube videos there may not be a recognisable author, so start the citation with the title of the video.
  • If you listen to the audio recording of a speech or interview, cite it as a sound recording. If needed, refer to the Sound Recording citation example under Other Sources.
Footnotes

Interviewee, ‘Title of interview’ [sound recording] (Publisher/Institution name, year), <URL>, access date.

Viola Tait, ‘Viola Tait interviewed by Michelle Potter’ [sound recording] (National Library of Australia, 1994), <http://nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn513201>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Interviewee, ‘Title of interview’ [sound recording] (Publisher/Institution name, year), <URL>, access date.

Tait, Viola, ‘Viola Tait interviewed by Michelle Potter’ [sound recording] (National Library of Australia, 1994), <http://nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn513201>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • If you listen to the audio recording of a speech or interview, cite it as a sound recording. See the Viola Tait example above. If needed, refer to the Sound Recording citation example under Other Sources.
  • Sound recordings can include any of the following information, if available: Artist/Composer, Title (Recording company, catalogue/standard number, year).
  • If the sound recording is held by a library, include the name of the library where Recording company would go.
  • If you listened to a sound recording in a library/institution, not online, do not include the URL and access date information.
  • In the example above, the title of the interview is not italicised because it is an unpublished work. If you cite a published interview, italicise the title.
Footnotes

Author (if stated), Title of speech, Date transcript published, <URL>, paragraph, access date.

Author, Title of speech, Date speech delivered, <URL>, page extent, access date.

Transcript of Julia Gillard’s Speech, 9 Oct. 2012, <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/political-news/transcript-of-julia-gillards-speech-20121010-27c36.html>, 7, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Paul Keating, Redfern Speech: Year of the World’s Indigenous People, 10 Dec. 1992, <http://www.keating.org.au/persistent/catalogue_files/products/19921210redfernspeech.pdf>, 5, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Author, Title of speech, Date speech delivered, <URL>, access date.

Author (if stated), Title of speech, Date transcript published, <URL>, paragraph, access date.

Keating, Paul, Redfern Speech: Year of the World’s Indigenous People, 10 Dec. 1992, <http://www.keating.org.au/persistent/catalogue_files/products/19921210redfernspeech.pdf>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Transcript of Julia Gillard’s Speech, 9 Oct. 2012, <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/political-news/transcript-of-julia-gillards-speech-20121010-27c36.html>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • If you read the transcript online, published by a newspaper or other media source, cite it as a web document. See the Transcript of Julia Gillard’s Speech above. Note that the article cited above does not have an official author, so the citation begins with the title of the article.
  • If you read the transcript online as a PDF document it should have an author and is considered a published document, so the title needs to be italicised. See the Paul Keating example above.
  • The title should be italicised if you read a published transcript. If you happen to read an unpublished transcript, do not italicise the title, but place it in ‘single inverted commas’.
  • The Paul Keating example above does not have the date in (parentheses) because that date refers to when the speech was given, not when the transcript was published online. The Julia Gillard example was published in an online newspaper on the (date in parentheses).