Internet materials

Footnotes

Author or editor name, ‘Title of article or section used’, Title of Website [type of medium], (date created, published, or posted (day month year) ) <URL> pagination or online equivalent, date accessed.

Catherine Woo, ‘Luna Park’, St. Kilda Historical Society [website], (1991) <http://www.skhs.org.au/~SKHSarticles1/articles/Luna_Park.htm> para. 11, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

Author or Editor Name, ‘Title of article or section used’, Title of Website [type of medium], (date created, published, or posted (day month year) ) <URL>, date accessed.

Woo, Catherine ‘Luna Park’, St. Kilda Historical Society [website], (1991) <http://www.skhs.org.au/~SKHSarticles1/articles/Luna_Park.htm> para. 11, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • Use this citation example for general information from a website
Footnotes

Author, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Website, (date of publication) <URL>, para. number, access date.

Matthew Clayfield, ‘Blood on the Mexican Border Squeezed by Opportunistic GOP’, Crikey, (14 Oct. 2011) <http://www.crikey.com.au/2011/10/14/blood-on-the-mexican-border-squeezed-by-opportunistic-gop/>, para. 6, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

David Frum, ‘A Civil War Professor Reviews "Lincoln" ’, Daily Beast, (27 Nov. 2012) <http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/11/27/a-civil-war-professor-reviews-lincoln.html>, para. 5, accessed 28 Nov. 2012.

Jessica Aldred, Amanda Astell, Rafael Behr, Lauren Cochrane, John Hind, Anna Pickard, Laura Potter, Alice Wignall and Eva Wiseman, 'The world's 50 most powerful blogs', Guardian, (9 Mar. 2008) <http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2008/mar/09/blogs>, para. 3, accessed 5 December 2013.

Bibliography

Author, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Website, (date of publication) <URL>, access date.

Clayfield, Matthew, ‘Blood on the Mexican Border Squeezed by Opportunistic GOP’, Crikey, (14 Oct. 2011) <http://www.crikey.com.au/2011/10/14/blood-on-the-mexican-border-squeezed-by-opportunistic-gop/>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Frum, David, ‘A Civil War Professor Reviews “Lincoln” ’, Daily Beast, (27 Nov. 2012) <http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/11/27/a-civil-war-professor-reviews-lincoln.html>, accessed 28 Nov. 2012.

Aldred, Jessica, Astell, Amanda, Behr, Rafael, Cochrane, Lauren, Hind, John, Pickard, Anna, Potter, Laura, Wignall, Alice and Wiseman, Eva, 'The world's 50 most powerful blogs', Guardian, (9 Mar. 2008) <http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2008/mar/09/blogs>, accessed 5 December 2013.

Notes
  • For a web document, try to refer to the paragraph number of your reference when footnoting. Don’t worry if it isn’t exact, just give the reader a reasonable reference point on the webpage to find your citation.
  • If referencing an online PDF which does have page numbers, use the page number in place of the paragraph reference.
Footnotes

Name/Handle, ‘Title or the first few words of tweet or comment…’, Name of site, date posted, <URL>, access date.

@julianburnside, ‘90% of boat people…’, Twitter, 6 Nov. 2012, <https://twitter.com/JulianBurnside>, viewed 27 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

Name/Handle, ‘Title or the first few words of tweet or comment…’, Name of site, date posted, <URL>, access date.

@julianburnside, ‘90% of boat people…’, Twitter, 6 Nov. 2012, <https://twitter.com/JulianBurnside>, viewed 27 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • Cite as though you are citing a webpage; include: Name/Handle, ‘Title or the first few words of tweet or comment…’, Name of site, date posted, <URL>, access date.
  • Do not italicise the title of the tweet or comment as it is not officially considered to be published
  • Consider carefully before including social media messages and comments in your essay. They might not be considered appropriate for scholarly work
Footnotes

Author/s, Title of video [format], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Allende and Pinochet in Chile [video], (Khan Academy, 9 May 2011)<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um92GZLCQ_Q&feature=edu&list=PLAC6B9F15C835224C>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Colin Firth Helps the People Speak [video], (BBC World News and Radio, 30 Nov. 2012)<http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-radio-and-tv-20296573>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012)<http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Call for a Commonwealth States Deal on GST Revenue [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 30 Nov. 2012) in iTunes, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Author/s, Title of video [format], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Allende and Pinochet in Chile [video], (Khan Academy, 9 May 2011)<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um92GZLCQ_Q&feature=edu&list=PLAC6B9F15C835224C>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Call for a Commonwealth States Deal on GST Revenue [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 30 Nov. 2012) in iTunes, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Colin Firth Helps the People Speak [video], (BBC World News and Radio, 30 Nov. 2012)<http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-radio-and-tv-20296573>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012)<http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • When there is no author, list the videos alphabetically by title in the bibliography
  • Use the full date of creation if available, otherwise just the year.
  • For YouTube videos, the up-loader of the content is the publisher (for citation purposes)
  • To reference an online video which is a vodcast :
    •  If you viewed it online, include the URL of the episode
    •  If you viewed it through iTunes, include via iTunes instead of the URL
    •  If you viewed it through Windows Media Player or Real Player, include the URL of the episode
Footnotes

Author or editor name, ‘Title of article or section used’, Title of Website [type of medium], (date created, published, or posted (day month year) ) <URL>, pagination or online equivalent, date accessed.

David Cox, ‘Disability in Film: Is Cinema Finally Moving with the Times?’, Guardian Film Blog [blog], (12 Nov. 2012) <http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2012/nov/12/disability-in-film-untouchable>, para. 6, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Laura Conaway, ‘The Making of Red America’, The Maddow Blog [blog], (26 Nov. 2012),
<http://maddowblog.msnbc.com/_news/2012/11/26/15455607-the-making-of-red-america?lite>, para. 1, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Marga Ortigas, ‘Journalists: In the Line of Fire’, Al Jazeera Blogs [blog], (26 Nov. 2012), <http://blogs.aljazeera.com/blog/asia/journalists-line-fire>, para. 8, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

Author or Editor Name, ‘Title of article or section used’, Title of Website [type of medium], (date created, published, or posted (day month year) ) <URL>, date accessed.

Conaway, Laura, ‘The Making of Red America’, The Maddow Blog [blog], (26 Nov. 2012),
<http://maddowblog.msnbc.com/_news/2012/11/26/15455607-the-making-of-red-america?lite>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Cox, David, ‘Disability in Film: Is Cinema Finally Moving with the Times?’, Guardian Film Blog [blog], (12 Nov. 2012) <http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2012/nov/12/disability-in-film-untouchable>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Ortigas, Marga, ‘Journalists: In the Line of Fire’, Al Jazeera Blogs [blog], (26 Nov. 2012), <http://blogs.aljazeera.com/blog/asia/journalists-line-fire>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • If there is no author name, begin the citation with the ‘title of the post’
  • If the author only provides a screen name or avatar name on their post, use this as the author’s name
  • Blogs are generally considered published material, therefore the date (belongs in parentheses)
  • If there is no date, include n.d.
Footnotes

Commentor name, ‘Title of article or section used’, Title of Website [type of medium], (date created, published, or posted (day month year) ) <URL>, paragraph number, date accessed.

Fred Magyar, ‘Re: The Physics of Global Warming’, Science Blogs [blog comment], (11 Nov. 2010) <http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/10/the-physics-of-global-warming/>, 2, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

Commentor name, ‘Title of article or section used’, Title of Website [type of medium], (date created, published, or posted (day month year) ) <URL>, date accessed.

Magyar, Fred, ‘Re: The Physics of Global Warming’, Science Blogs [blog comment], (11 Nov. 2010) <http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/10/the-physics-of-global-warming/>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • If there is no author name, begin the citation with the ‘title of article or section used’
  • If the author only provides a screen name or avatar name on their post, use this as the author’s name
  • If there is no date, include n.d.
Footnotes

Author/s, ‘Title of podcast episode’, Title of Series of podcasts [podcast or vodcast], (Publisher, Date) <URL> or in iTunes, access date.

Clare Wright, ‘How Australian Women Won the Vote’, Australian History [podcast], (La Trobe University, 2009) in iTunes U, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Marcia Langton, ‘Lecture 1 – Changing the Paradigm: Mining Companies, Native Title and Aboriginal Australians’, 2012 Boyer Lectures [podcast], (ABC Radio National, 2012) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/boyerlectures/boyers-ep1/4305610>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo, [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012) <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Author/s, ‘Title of podcast episode’, Title of Series of podcasts [podcast or vodcast], (Publisher, date) <URL> or in iTunes, access date.

Fierce Clashes in Cairo, [vodcast], (ABC Lateline, 28 Nov. 2012) <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/lateline/video/201211/LATs_CairoLate_2811_512k.mp4>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Langton, Marcia ‘Lecture 1 – Changing the Paradigm: Mining Companies, Native Title and Aboriginal Australians’, 2012 Boyer Lectures [podcast], (ABC Radio National, 2012) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/boyerlectures/boyers-ep1/4305610>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Wright, Clare, ‘How Australian Women Won the Vote’, Australian History [podcast], (La Trobe University, 2009) in iTunes U, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • How you reference a podcast/vodcast depends on how you listened to/viewed it.
    •  If you listened to/viewed online, include the URL of the episode
    • If you listened to/viewed through iTunes, include in iTunes instead of the URL
    • If you listened to/viewed through Windows Media Player or Real Player, include the URL of the episode
  • If there isn’t a Series Title, italicise the name of the podcast, e.g. Fierce Clashes in Cairo is the name of the podcast and it doesn’t belong to a series so it is italicised.
  • When there is no author, list the podcasts/vodcasts alphabetically by title in the bibliography
  • Use the full date for a podcast/vodcast if available, otherwise just the year.
Footnotes

‘Entry title’, Name of wiki [wiki], (last modified date), <URL>, access date.

‘Heathcliff (Wuthering Heights)’, Wikipedia [wiki], (last modified 21 Nov. 2012), <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heathcliff_%28Wuthering_Heights%29>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

‘Entry title’, Name of wiki [wiki], (last modified date), <URL>, access date.

‘Heathcliff (Wuthering Heights)’, Wikipedia [wiki], (last modified 21 Nov. 2012), <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heathcliff_%28Wuthering_Heights%29>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  •  Consider carefully before including information from a wiki in your essay. In most circumstances it would not be considered appropriate for scholarly work. The exception would be when information in a wiki could not be found in a more legitimate source. Even in this situation, you should still check with your lecturer or tutor before relying on a wiki as a resource.
Footnotes

Name of creator (if known), Title of image [image], (Date of publication/Year of Creation) <URL>, access date.

Barack Obama, Four More Years [image], (7 Nov. 2012) <https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/266031293945503744/photo/1>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Tracey Emin, My Bed [image], (1998) <http://www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk/artists/tracey_emin.htm>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Melbourne Rally in Support of the Labor Party After the Double Dissolution of Parliament, 1975 [image], (1975) <http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/scripts/PhotoSearchItemDetail.asp?M=0&B=11444580&SE=1>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Stewart & Co., AMS, taken 1877 [Adelaide Margaret Singleton] [image], (1877) <http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/124516>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Name of creator (if known), Title of image [image], (Date of publication/Year of Creation) <URL>, access date.

Emin, Tracey, My Bed [image], (1998) <http://www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk/artists/tracey_emin.htm>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Melbourne Rally in Support of the Labor Party After the Double Dissolution of Parliament, 1975 [image], (1975) <http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/scripts/PhotoSearchItemDetail.asp?M=0&B=11444580&SE=1>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Obama, Barack, Four More Years [image], (7 Nov. 2012) <https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/266031293945503744/photo/1>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Stewart & Co., AMS, taken 1877 [Adelaide Margaret Singleton] [image], (1877) <http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/124516>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • Even if the title includes the year, still include (year of creation)
  • You do not need to write that it was an online image because the URL makes it obvious
  • This citation example is based on rule 15.15.3 in R.M. Ritter Oxford Style Guide (Oxford: OUP, 2003)