Other sources

Footnotes

NAA: series number, item number.

NAA: A6122, 366.

PROV, series/consignment numbers, Unit number, item description.

PROV, VPRS 805/P0004, Unit 3, 1/6.

Bibliography

National Archives of Australia: name of the agency or person that created the record; series title and date extent; item title and date extent.

National Archives of Australia: Australian Security Intelligence Organization, Central Office; Communist Party of Australia. Activity amongst British Migrants – Volume 1, 1951-1953 (Canberra).

 PROV, Agency number and name, series/consignment numbers and series title, Unit number, item description.

PROV, VA 311 Trustees of the National Gallery of Victoria, VPRS 805/P0004 Inward Registered Correspondence, Unit 3, 1/6 Exhibitions – British and Australian War Artists.

Notes
  • The Oxford Style Manual recommends citing archival documents in a manner which reflect the structure of the document and the archival institution which houses it. In other words, unique sources are allowed unique references. (see section 15.17.1 of R.M. Ritter, Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: OUP, 2003)).
  • The Oxford Style Manual prefers to include the city where the collection is h
Footnotes

Artist/s, Title, Year/s of creation, [format, if it isn’t obvious], current location (if a work of art), fig number (if a copy is in the appendix).

Francois Boucher, The Birth of Venus, 1740, Stockholm National Gallery.

Bibliography

Artist/s, Title, Year/s of creation, [format, if it isn’t obvious] current location (if a work of art).

Boucher, Francois, The Birth of Venus, 1740, Stockholm National Gallery.

Notes
  • If you cite artworks that are not in a book, but that you saw in a gallery the citation should only be included in a reference list, but not in a bibliography. Only use the ‘Bibliography’ example above to format a citation for a reference list. See the Style Notes for an explanation of the differences between a bibliography and a reference list.
  • Include the museum’s inventory number of a work of art, if known, between year of creation and current location.
  • The date comes after the title of the work as it refers to the creation date and not related to the institution that houses it.
  • Images should be reproduced in appendices at the end of your essay. Label images as ‘Fig. 1’ etc. and use these in (parentheses) in the text when referring to an artwork.
  • This citation example is especially useful for personal or unpublished images and you should include a photocopy in an appendix.
Footnotes

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date, page extent.

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date, <URL>, access date, para. number.

Steven Carroll, ‘The Stuff of Theatre’, review of Ira Nadel, Double Act: A Life of Tom Stoppard, in Age, ‘Saturday Extra’, 28 Sept. 2002, 8.

David Free, ‘Why Me? Why Not?’, review of Christopher Hitchens, Mortality, in Australian, 25 Aug. 2012, in Factiva [online database], accessed 1 Dec. 2012.

Gerardo Marti, review of Brian S. Turner, Religion and Modern Society: Citizenship, Secularization, and the State, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1 Dec. 2012, 1136-39.

Lucy Sussex, ‘Life in Dingo Dell’, review of Peter Morton, Lusting for London: Australian Expatriate Writers at the Hub of Empire, 1870-1950, in Australian Book Review, June 2012, <https://www.australianbookreview.com.au/june-2012/993-342-literarystudies-sussex>, accessed 1 Dec. 2012, para. 6.

Bibliography

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date.

Review Author, ‘Title of review if there is one’, review of Book Author, Title of Reviewed Book, in Publication Title, ‘Section of Publication if relevant’, Date, <URL>, access date.

Carroll, Steven, ‘The Stuff of Theatre’, review of Ira Nadel, Double Act: A Life of Tom Stoppard, in Age, ‘Saturday Extra’, 28 Sept. 2002.

Free, David, ‘Why Me? Why Not?’, review of Christopher Hitchens, Mortality, in Australian, 25 Aug. 2012, in Factiva [online database], accessed 1 Dec. 2012.

Marti, Gerardo, review of Brian S. Turner, Religion and Modern Society: Citizenship, Secularization, and the State, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1 Dec. 2012.

Sussex, Lucy, ‘Life in Dingo Dell’, review of Peter Morton, Lusting for London: Australian Expatriate Writers at the Hub of Empire, 1870-1950, in Australian Book Review, June 2012, <https://www.australianbookreview.com.au/june-2012/993-342-literarystudies-sussex>, accessed 1 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • Quality book reviews will be published in newspapers, trade magazines or journals; book reviews from general websites may not be good sources for essays (check with your lecturer or tutor).
  • Because they feature within publications, the details of those publications need to be included in the citation, i.e. the title of the newspaper or journal and the date it was published are necessary.
  • If you read the review online, such as the Age online, include the URL; in the footnote, include the paragraph reference point for your quote; in the bibliography, do not include the paragraph reference point. See the Lucy Sussex citation above for an online review example.
  • Do not include URLs for online journals or databases, like Factiva, because they are subscription-based and will ask for a login.
Footnotes

Author/s, ‘Title of conference paper’, paper given at Name of Conference, City of conference, date of conference. <URL>, access date, page extent.

Wan Ng, ‘Effective E-Pedagogy for Virtual Science Learning with High Ability Secondary School Students’, paper given at the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Education and Educational Technology, Iwate, 4-6 Oct. 2010, 9.

Bradley Bowden, ‘A World Dominated by Youth: Child and Youth Labour in Queensland, 1885-1900’, paper given at the Past is Before Us Conference, Sydney, 30 June – 2 July 2005, <http://www.historycooperative.org/proceedings/asslh/bowden.html>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012, 12.

Jonathan Strauss, ‘How Was Labour Divided? Working Class Politics in the 1940s’, paper given at Labour Traditions: The Tenth National Labour History Conference, Melbourne, 4-6 July 2007, <http://www.historycooperative.org/proceedings/asslh2/strauss.html>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012, 25.

Bibliography

Author/s, ‘Title of conference paper’, paper given at Name of Conference, City of conference, date of conference. <URL>, access date.

Bowden, Bradley, ‘A World Dominated by Youth: Child and Youth Labour in Queensland, 1885-1900’, paper given at the Past is Before Us Conference, Sydney, 30 June – 2 July 2005, <http://www.historycooperative.org/proceedings/asslh/bowden.html>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Ng, Wan, ‘Effective E-Pedagogy for Virtual Science Learning with High Ability Secondary School Students’, paper given at the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Education and Educational Technology, Iwate, 4-6 Oct. 2010.

Strauss, Jonathan, ‘How Was Labour Divided? Working Class Politics in the 1940s’, paper given at Labour Traditions: The Tenth National Labour History Conference, Melbourne, 4-6 July 2007, <http://www.historycooperative.org/proceedings/asslh2/strauss.html>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • Only use this citation example for an unpublished paper
  • Because it is unpublished, do not italicise the title
  • Once published, a conference paper is cited like a book chapter or journal article, depending on the format in which it is published
  • Conference papers found in university repositories and on conference websites are not published. Only those found in books and journals are considered published conference papers
  • If the exact date of the paper presentation is known, use that instead of the whole date range of the conference
  • If the paper was not read online, do not include the <URL> and access date. See the Wan Ng example above
Footnotes

Lecturer name, ‘Lecture title or Week of presentation’ [type of material, i.e. PowerPoint slides], Subject code or name, University name, date of presentation, <URL if available online>, access date if online, page extent (if relevant).

Diane Kirkby, ‘Lecture 14: Women in Warrior Societies: Myth Legend and History’ [PowerPoint slides], HIS1MLH, La Trobe University, 17 Sep. 2012, <https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/mod/resource/view.php?id=785851>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012, 18.

Dirk Tomsa, ‘Lecture 5: Case Studies in Democracy and Authoritarianism’ [PowerPoint slides], POL1DEM, La Trobe University, 1 Aug. 2012, 11.

Anna Dzenis, ‘Lecture 2: Global Cinema’ [lecture notes], CST2CFI, La Trobe University, 1 Aug. 2012, 2.

Alexis Harley, ‘Lecture 12: Literary Patchworking’ [lectopia recording], ENG1TOT, La Trobe University, 14 May 2012.

Bibliography

Lecturer Name, ‘Lecture title or Week of presentation’ [type of material, i.e. PowerPoint slides], Subject code/name, University name, date of presentation, <URL if available online>, access date if online.

Dzenis, Anna, ‘Lecture 2: Global Cinema’ [lecture notes], CST2CFI, La Trobe University, 1 Aug. 2012.

Harley, Alexis, ‘Lecture 12: Literary Patchworking’ [lectopia recording], ENG1TOT, La Trobe University, 14 May 2012.

Kirkby, Diana, ‘Lecture 14: Women in Warrior Societies: Myth Legend and History’ [PowerPoint slides], HIS1MLH, La Trobe University, 17 Sep. 2012, <https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/mod/resource/view.php?id=785851>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Tomsa, Dirk, ‘Lecture 5: Case Studies in Democracy and Authoritarianism’ [PowerPoint slides], POL1DEM, La Trobe University, 1 Aug. 2012.

Notes
  • If the lecturer does not provide a title on the notes, use the subject code as the title
  • Use this citation style for lecture notes, course notes, and any other material provided by lecturers during a lecture and the Lectopia recordings.
  • The title of the material should be ‘in quotation marks’ and not italicised, as it is unpublished material.
Footnotes

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year) in Early English Books Online [online database], access date.

Geoffrey Chaucer, The Lyf So Short the Craft So Lo[n]ge to Lerne (Westminster: W. Caxton, 1477) in Early English Books Online [online database], accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year) in Early English Books Online [online database], access date.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, The Lyf So Short the Craft So Lo[n]ge to Lerne (Westminster: W. Caxton, 1477) in Early English Books Online [online database], accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • Basically this source is cited as a document in an online database; but because EEBO scans the original books, the publication details should be included.
  • The EEBO record for the book should have the publication details needed for the citation.
  • If known, the (City of Publication: Publisher, Year) details are included after the title. See the example above.
  • If the EEBO record has year? for the date, leave the ? off the citation.
  • Do not include the URL for the record as it is a database and requires a login to access.
  • There may not be page numbers available. If you do have a page number reference, include it between online database and access date, i.e. [online database], 28-30, accessed…
Footnotes

Author (if known), Title [format] (Year), <URL>, access date.

Poster, ‘When the Kellys Rode’ (film), Australia, c 1930s [poster] (c. 1930), <http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/collection/database/?irn=23373>, accessed 4 Dec. 2012.

Jane Doe, Untitled, 2012 [photograph], fig. 4.

Notes
  • Ephemera can include anything that does not fit into any other category, such as posters, postcards, personal photographs or a physical item.
  • Generally do not include ephemera in a bibliography - see note below.
  • Classify the ephemera with a format type after the title, i.e. [poster]
  • In the example above, Poster, ‘When the Kellys Rode’ (film), Australia, c 1930s, is the full title of the item as it appears in the Powerhouse Museum’s online catalogue. Always use the title given to an item by the institution which houses it.
  • NOTE: In some history subjects, ephemera needs to be in the bibliography as well as Footnotes. If in doubt, check with your lecturer.
Footnotes

Author, Title of Report (Year) <URL>, page extent or para. number, access date.

Amnesty International, Amnesty International Report 2012: The State of the World’s Human Rights (London: Amnesty International Ltd, 2012), 67.

Medecins sans Frontieres, International Financial Report 2011 (2011) <http://www.msf.org/shadomx/apps/fms/fmsdownload.cfm?file_uuid=440A73C7-59B0-4D4D-B7C7-C19D432D861F&siteName=msf>, 6, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

Author, Title of Report (Year) <URL>, page extent, access date.

Amnesty International, Amnesty International Report 2012: The State of the World’s Human Rights (London: Amnesty International Ltd, 2012).

Medecins sans Frontieres, International Financial Report 2011 (2011) <http://www.msf.org/shadomx/apps/fms/fmsdownload.cfm?file_uuid=440A73C7-59B0-4D4D-B7C7-C19D432D861F&siteName=msf>, 6, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • If the document is an online PDF, reference the page number of your quote in the Footnote; see the Amnesty International example above.
  • If the document is not a PDF, but an online html version, reference the paragraph number of your quote in the Footnote. See the Medecins sans Frontiers example above.
  • If you read a print version, reference it like you would a book with a Corporate Author. See the Corporate Author citation example under Books.
  • If you read an online document, you do not need to cite is as a web document because the URL makes that obvious.
Footnotes

Artist/Creator, Title of artwork, Year/s of creation, current location (if work of art), in Name of database [online database], access date.

Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, c. 1482, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, in ARTStor [online database], accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Vasily Kandinsky, Composition IX, 1936, Musee National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, in Grove Art Online [online database], accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Bibliography

Artist/Creator, Title of artwork, Year/s of creation, current location (if work of art), in Name of database [online database], access date.

Botticelli, Sandro, Birth of Venus, c. 1482, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, in ARTstor [online database], accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Kandinsky, Vasily, Composition IX, 1936, Musee National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, in Grove Art Online [online database], accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Notes
  • This citation example is for images found in a database. Databases do not make URLs available to link directly to the document or image.
  • It is enough to include the name of the database you used, followed by [online database].
  • The word online is included here because there is not URL.
  • Images that aren’t from a database, which have a usable URL, should be cited as an ‘Image from a webpage’.
Footnotes

Creator, ‘Title of Artwork’, Year of creation, in Book Author, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page extent/plate number/figure number.

Giovanni Bellini, ‘San Giobbe Altarpiece’, 1478, in Geraldine A. Johnson, Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP, 2005), 18.

Michaelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, ‘Entombment of Christ’, 1602-1603, in Andrew Graham-Dixon, Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane (London: Allen Lane, 2010), pl. 3.

Bibliography

Creator, ‘Title of Artwork’, Year of creation, in Book Author, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

Bellini, Giovanni, ‘San Giobbe Altarpiece’, 1478, in Geraldine A. Johnson, Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP, 2005).

Caravaggio, Michaelangelo Merisi da, ‘Entombment of Christ’, 1602-1603, in Andrew Graham-Dixon, Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane (London: Allen Lane, 2010).

Notes
  • If the book has plates inserted between numbered pages, use the plate no. instead of the page number; see the example above for Caravaggio’s ‘Entombment of Christ’
  • If the book has assigned a number to each art work, use that number in your citation, e.g. the Caravaggio example above would become Michaelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, ‘Entombment of Christ’, 1602-1603, in Andrew Graham-Dixon, Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane (London: Allen Lane, 2010), fig. 24 or (plural) figs. 24-26.
Footnotes

Name of creator (if known), Title of image [image], (Date of publication) <URL>, access date.

Barack Obama, Four More Years [image], (7 Nov. 2012) <https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/266031293945503744/photo/1>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Tracey Emin, My Bed [image], (1998) <http://www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk/artists/tracey_emin.htm>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Melbourne Rally in Support of the Labor Party After the Double Dissolution of Parliament, 1975 [image], (1975) <http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/scripts/PhotoSearchItemDetail.asp?M=0&B=11444580&SE=1>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Stewart & Co., AMS, taken 1877 [Adelaide Margaret Singleton] [image], (1877) <http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/124516>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Name of creator (if known), Title of image [image], (Date of publication) <URL>, access date.

Emin, Tracey, My Bed [image], (1998) <http://www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk/artists/tracey_emin.htm>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Melbourne Rally in Support of the Labor Party After the Double Dissolution of Parliament, 1975 [image], (1975) <http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/scripts/PhotoSearchItemDetail.asp?M=0&B=11444580&SE=1>, accessed 30 Nov. 2012.

Obama, Barack, Four More Years [image], (7 Nov. 2012) <https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/266031293945503744/photo/1>, accessed 27 Nov. 2012.

Stewart & Co., AMS, taken 1877 [Adelaide Margaret Singleton] [image], (1877) <http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/124516>, accessed 3 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • Try to include the following details: Name of the image’s creator (if known); Title of image; Year of creation, [format of media] <URL>, date accessed.
  • Even if the title includes the year, still include (year of creation) after the title.
  • The format reference [image] comes after the title and date because it is an online source.
  • You do not need to include the word online because the URL makes it obvious that it’s an online resource.
Footnotes

Interviewee, ‘Title of interview’ [sound recording] (Publisher/Institution name, year), <URL>, access date.

Viola Tait, ‘Viola Tait interviewed by Michelle Potter’ [sound recording] (National Library of Australia, 1994), <http://nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn513201>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Interviewee, ‘Title of interview’ [sound recording] (Publisher/Institution name, year), <URL>, access date.

Tait, Viola, ‘Viola Tait interviewed by Michelle Potter’ [sound recording] (National Library of Australia, 1994), <http://nla.gov.au/nla.oh-vn513201>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • If you listen to the audio recording of an interview, cite it as a sound recording. See the Viola Tait example above. If needed, refer to the Sound Recording citation example under Other Sources.
  • Sound recordings can include any of the following information, if available: Artist/Composer, Title (Recording company, catalogue/standard number, year).
  • If the sound recording is held by a library, include the name of the library where Recording company would go.
  • If you listened to a sound recording in a library/institution, not online, do not include the URL and access date information.

 

Footnotes

Map maker, ‘Title of map’, Map Series, Sheet number, scale (Place of publication: Publisher, Year).

Map maker, ‘Title of map’, Map Series, Sheet number, scale [online], (Year) <URL>, access date.

Victoria, Department of Minerals and Energy, Mineral Map, Victoria, 1:1,000,000 (Melbourne: Victorian Department of Minerals and Energy, 1981).

Drafting Services Section, Victoria’s Alpine Area, 1:300,000 (Melbourne: Department of Conservation and Environment, 1991).

Great Britain, Army, Middle East Forces, Trench Map from Quinns to Lone Pine: Compiled from Photographs and Traverses: Contours Compared with Enlargement of 1/20,000 Turkish Map, Sheet 11, 1:1,800 [online], (1915) <http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-vn5448242>, accessed 4 Dec. 2012.

Victoria, Surveyor General’s Office, ‘Parish of Anakie, County of Grant’, Parish Maps of Victoria, Sheet 181 [online], (1855) <http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/89694>, accessed 4 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Map maker, ‘Title of map’, Map Series, Sheet number, scale (Place of publication: Publisher, Year)

Map maker, ‘Title of map’, Map Series, Sheet number, scale [online], (Year) <URL>, access date.

Victoria, Department of Minerals and Energy, Mineral Map, Victoria, 1:1,000,000 (Melbourne: Victorian Department of Minerals and Energy, 1981).

Drafting Services Section, Victoria’s Alpine Area, 1:300,000 (Melbourne: Department of Conservation and Environment, 1991).

Great Britain, Army, Middle East Forces, Trench Map from Quinns to Lone Pine: Compiled from Photographs and Traverses: Contours Compared with Enlargement of 1/20,000 Turkish Map, Sheet 11, 1:1,800 [online], (1915) <http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-vn5448242>, accessed 4 Dec. 2012.

Victoria, Surveyor General’s Office, ‘Parish of Anakie, County of Grant’, Parish Maps of Victoria, Sheet 181 [online], (1855) <http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/89694>, accessed 4 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • Include as much detail in the citation as is available.
  • Don’t worry if the sheet number and scale are not available, just leave them out.
  • Usually do not need to include [map] because other information in the citation makes it obvious. If you do not have any scale information and the title doesn’t say map, include [map] after the title to make it clear that the resource is a map.
Footnotes

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page extent.

Diane Fields, The Fight for Black Rights (Sydney South: Bookmarks Australia, 1995), 7.

Bibliography

Author, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page extent.

Fields, Diane, The Fight for Black Rights (Sydney South: Bookmarks Australia, 1995).

Notes
  • Cite a pamphlet or brochure as you would a book.
  • If a pamphlet or brochure is online, cite it as you would a document from a website.
Footnotes

Name, ‘Title of communication/subject’ [type of communication], date of correspondence, figure number (if including a photocopy in the appendix), paragraph number.

John Doe, ‘Email interview’ [email to Jane Doe], 8 July 2010, fig. 8, para. 13.

Notes
  • Personal communications can include letters, emails and interviews
  • Be sure to get permission from the person being cited before you use their details
  • Put all the details of the letter, email or interview in the footnote
  • Personal communications are not included in the bibliography.
  • Include a photocopy of personal communications in the appendices of your essay, label them with a figure number and refer to that figure number in your essay. See example above.
  • A paragraph number can be included at the end of the citation to direct the reader to your quote.
Footnotes

Poet, 'Poem', Title of book poem is in (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Sylvia Plath, ‘Elm’, Ariel (London: Faber and Faber, 1968), 18.

Bibliography

Author/Poet, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Plath, Sylvia, Ariel (London: Faber and Faber, 1968).

Shakespeare, William, The Tempest, ed. Martin Butler (London: Penguin, 2007).

Shakespeare, William, The Winter’s Tale, ed. Ernest Schanzer (London: Penguin, 2005).

Notes
  • Poetry and plays are considered specialist sources with their own in-text formatting style.
  • When referencing Shakespeare, if you include all the relevant details in (soft brackets) after a quote you do not need to repeat those details in a footnote.
  • The bibliography entry should appear like a normal book, with the standard format of Author, Title, ed. Name (if relevant) (City of Publication: Publisher, year).
  • When quotes from plays and poems are cited in full in the body of the essay, do not repeat the information in a footnote.
  • See the section on Shakespeare in the Style Notes for more information.
  • See the section on Poetry & Plays in the Style Notes for more information.
Footnotes

Original Author, Title of original book (Place of Publication: Publisher, year) cited in Secondary Book Author, Title of Secondary source (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page extent.

Norman Klein, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (London: Verso, 1997) cited in Allan Cameron, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema (Basingstoke, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 83.

Bibliography

Secondary Book Author, Title of Secondary source (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

Cameron, Allan, Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema (Basingstoke, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

Notes
  • The original and secondary source should be cited in the footnote.
  • In the bibliography, only list the secondary source. Do not list original sources that you did not read.
  • This is where the work of one author is cited in another author’s work. In the example above, Norman Klein is the author of an original source and Allan Cameron is citing him in his own book, making Allan Cameron’s book the secondary source E.g.:
    • As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, “the Romantics gloried in the ruins of memory”…
    • See Footnote example above – Norman Klein is cited as the author of the quote with the title and publishing details of his book, followed by the details of the book where the quote was found.
    • The publishing details of Norman Klein’s book were found in the bibliography of Allan Cameron’s book
    • See the Bibliography example above – Norman Klein is not cited here, just the author of the book which has the Norman Klein quote.
Footnotes

Author, ‘Title of speech’, speech in the House of Lords, date, <URL>, paragraph, access date.

Lord Bilimoria, ‘Minority Ethnic and Religious Communities: Cultural and Economic Contribution – Motion to Take Note’, speech in the House of Lords, 24 May 2012, <http://www.theyworkforyou.com/lords/?gid=2012-05-24a.865.2>, 4, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Jurisdiction, Parliamentary Debates, Chamber of the House, Date, page reference (Name and Position of speaker).

Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 9 Oct. 2012, 11581 (Julia Gillard, Prime Minister).

Author/s, Title of video [video], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Julia Gillard’s Speech Over Opposition’s Sexism, Misogyny [video] (newsInworld, 9 Oct. 2012), <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfo3SGIiSE0>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Jurisdiction, Parliamentary Debates, Chamber of the House, Date, page reference (Name and Position of speaker).

Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 9 Oct. 2012, 11581 (Julia Gillard, Prime Minister).

Author/s, Title of video [video], (Publisher, Date created) <URL>, access date.

Julia Gillard’s Speech Over Opposition’s Sexism, Misogyny [video] (newsInworld, 9 Oct. 2012), <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfo3SGIiSE0>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Author, ‘Title of speech’, speech in the House of Lords, date, <URL>, access date.

Lord Bilimoria, ‘Minority Ethnic and Religious Communities: Cultural and Economic Contribution – Motion to Take Note’, speech in the House of Lords, 24 May 2012, <http://www.theyworkforyou.com/lords/?gid=2012-05-24a.865.2>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • How you cite a speech will depend on how you accessed the resource. See the examples under Footnote and Bibliography for the various formats.
  • In the House of Lords example above, only the Lord’s official title is needed when citing the author. Lord Bilimoria’s actual full name is not required because he delivered the speech in the House of Lords under his Lordship title. If the same person delivered a speech at a public function their actual name would be used for the author field.
  • Some speeches may be available in a variety of formats; with the Julia Gillard examples above, how you refer to this speech will depend on how you access it.
  • If you read the official Hansard transcript, cite it as a Parliamentary Debate. See the Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates example above. if needed, refer to the Parliamentary Debates citation example under Government Publications.
  • If you viewed the speech online via YouTube, cite it as an online video. See the Julia Gillard’s Speech Over Opposition’s Sexism, Misogyny example above. Note that with YouTube videos there may not be a recognisable author, so start the citation with the title of the video.
  • If you listen to the audio recording of a speech or interview, cite it as a sound recording. If needed, refer to the Sound Recording citation example under Other Sources.
Footnotes

Bible:
Chapter name chapter number: verse number

Koran:
Sūra number, v. number

Isaiah 6: 9

Sūra 19, v. 12

Notes
  • The reference in text can be abbreviated to the book name i.e. for Genesis, Gen. 24: 61-65
  • If the entire reference is quoted in the body of text, the Footnote and Bibliography references are not required. E.g. if you write, “In the Bible, at Isaiah 6:9…” you do not need to Footnote or list the reference in the Bibliography. However if you are writing generally without referring to the chapter and verse, you will need to include a Footnote with chapter and verse details.
  • When citing Sūra and verse from the Koran, writing only the number of the Sūra and the verse number is acceptable, e.g. 19. 12 instead of Sūra 19, v. 12. This would be recommended if you are citing many references from the Koran. If only citing a few, write Sūra and v. to avoid confusion.
  • Do not include these references in a bibliography.
  • Do not utilise ‘Ibid’ for spiritual text references.
  • If your essay will be citing heavily from spiritual texts, refer to section 13.8 on Sacred Works in R.M. Ritter, Oxford Style Manual (London: OUP, 2003) for further information.
Footnotes

Author (if stated), Title of speech, (Date transcript published) <URL>, paragraph, access date.

Transcript of Julia Gillard’s Speech, (9 Oct. 2012) <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/political-news/transcript-of-julia-gillards-speech-20121010-27c36.html>, 7, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Author, Title of speech, Date speech delivered, <URL>, page extent, access date.

Paul Keating, Redfern Speech: Year of the World’s Indigenous People, 10 Dec. 1992, <http://www.keating.org.au/persistent/catalogue_files/products/19921210redfernspeech.pdf>, 5, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Bibliography

Author, Title of speech, Date speech delivered, <URL>, access date.

Keating, Paul, Redfern Speech: Year of the World’s Indigenous People, 10 Dec. 1992 <http://www.keating.org.au/persistent/catalogue_files/products/19921210redfernspeech.pdf>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Author (if stated), Title of speech, (Date transcript published) <URL>, paragraph, access date.

Transcript of Julia Gillard’s Speech, (9 Oct. 2012) <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/political-news/transcript-of-julia-gillards-speech-20121010-27c36.html>, accessed 10 Dec. 2012.

Notes
  • If you read the transcript online, published by a newspaper or other media source, cite it as a web document. See the Transcript of Julia Gillard’s Speech above. Note that the article cited above does not have an official author, so the citation begins with the title of the article.
  • If you read the transcript online as a PDF document it should have an author and is considered a published document, so the title needs to be italicised. See the Paul Keating example above.
  • The title should be italicised if you read a published transcript. If you happen to read an unpublished transcript, do not italicise the title, but place it in ‘single inverted commas’.
  • The Paul Keating example above does not have the date in (parentheses) because that date refers to when the speech was given, not when the transcript was published online. The Julia Gillard example was published in an online newspaper on the (date in parentheses).