Media (Audiovisual) items

Reference List

Film or video

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Film]. Production Company. https://xxxxxx

Spielberg, S. (Director). (1975). Jaws [Film]. Universal Pictures.

Abouchar, C. & Haertsch, M. (Producers). (2011). The smile within [Film; educational DVD]. Hot Tin Productions.

Notes
  • Include a URL if it is the only means of retrieval.
  • Include the year the original work was published in brackets at the end of the reference if needed, e.g. (Original work published Year)
  • The director should be in the author position for films, using (brackets) to identify their role.  If the director is unknown, someone with a similar role can be used, e.g. producer/s.
  • Separate multiple production company names using semicolons, e.g. Universal Pictures; WingNut Films.
  • A description of the medium used can be included when it's important to note what version you used, e.g. a DVD with special features. This information is placed in the square bracket after the word Film and a semicolon. You can adjust the wording as needed.
  • See also APA Style YouTube Video References; APA Style TED Talk References.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 341-344); APA Style: Film and Television References.

Reference List

Music album

Artist, A. A. or Group. (Year). Title of album [Album; description of medium if needed]. Label. https://xxxxxx

lang, k. d. (2008). Watershed [Album]. Nonesuch Records.

Song

Artist, A. A. or Group. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label. https://xxxxxx

Eilish, B. (2019). Bad guy [Song]. On When we all fall asleep, where do we go? Darkroom; Interscope Records.

Notes
  • Include a URL if it is the only means of retrieval.
  • For classical works
    • Provide the composer as the author and note [in square brackets] the individual or group who recorded the version used.
    • Include the year the original work was published in brackets at the end of the reference, e.g. (Original work published Year)
  • For all other recordings, the recording artist or group should be in the author position using the name under which the recording is released.
  • If a song has no associated album, omit that part of the reference.
  • Separate multiple music label names using semicolons, e.g. Darkroom; Interscope Records.
  • See also APA Style: Musical Score References.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 344-345).

Reference List

Surname, Initial. [Screen name/username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Streaming platform. https://xxxxxx

La Trobe University Library. (2010, February 9). Why can't I just Google? [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bp-ZGFd5o5A

Zoos Victoria. (2020, April 30). The snow leopard cubs have been named [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7sdvQwCzW0

Notes
  • The author of the video is the person or group who posted it and not necessarily the creator of the video.
  • Use an individual's real name as author, if available. Otherwise use their screen name or username.
  • When available, include both the author's real name and username.
  • Capitalise the screen name or username as it appears online.
  • In text, reference by the author name that appears outside the brackets.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 341-344), APA Style: YouTube Video References.

Reference List

Podcast

Author, A. (Producer). (Year or Year range). Title of work [Audio podcast]. Production company. https://xxxxxx

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2005-present). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

Podcast episode

Author, A. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (Episode number) [Format]. In Podcast series title. Production company. https://xxxxxx

Welsh, E., & Updyke, E. A., (Hosts). (2019, February 5). Scurvy: Thanks a lot, evolution (Episode 19) [Audio podcast]. In This podcast will kill you. Exactly Right. http://thispodcastwillkillyou.com/2019/02/05/episode-19-scurvy-thanks-a-lot-evolution/

Notes
  • For a podcast, list the host as author or list the executive producers if known. In either case, include their role in (parentheses) after their name/s.
  • For a podcast episode
    • list the host as the author and add their role in (parentheses) after their name/s.
    • include the episode number after the title in (parentheses) where episodes are numbered.
  • Specify the type of podcast, audio or video, in [square brackets] after the title.
  • If the URL is not known then omit it from the reference.
  • See also APA Style: Transcript of Audiovisual Work References; APA Style: Radio Broadcast References.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 345-346).

Reference List

Executive Producer. A. A. (Executive Producers). (Year or Year range). Title of TV series [TV series]. Production Company.

Ulm, B. (Executive Producer). (2019-present). Who gets to stay in Australia? [TV Series]. ITV Studios; SBS; Film Victoria.

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV Series. Production Company.

Horstman, M. (Writer), & Adams, J. (Director). (2010, August 19). Scientists in schools [TV series episode]. In N. Lee  (Executive Producer), Catalyst. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Notes
  • For a television series
    • credit the executive producer/s as the author.
    • use a year or a span of years separated with a dash, e.g. 2008-2015 or 2009-present (if still airing).
  • For an episode from a radio or television series
    • use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director, if available, in the author position and the executive producer in the editor position.
    • include the season and episode number, if available, after the title in parentheses.
  • Separate multiple production company names using semicolons.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 341-344); APA Style: Film and Television References.

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes.
See also: Direct quotation of material without page numbers.

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation): The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)

 

  • One author: Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)

 

  • Two authors: Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)

 

  • Three or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)

 

  • Group / corporate author: La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

 

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing:
You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).