Other Sources

Reference List

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of program (Version number) [Description of form]. Publisher. http://xxxxxx

Integrated Analytics. (2010). StatCrunch (Version 5.0) [Computer software]. Pearson Education.

Notes
  • Reference entries are not required for standard software or programming languages (e.g. Microsoft Word or Excel, Java, Adobe Photoshop, or SPSS).
  • Identify the version number in parentheses (brackets) immediately after the title, if available.
  • Include URL if available.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 338-340).

Reference List

Published in book form:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of paper or poster. In B. Editor (Ed.), Title of conference (pp. ). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Icart, T. (2009). How to hash into elliptic curves. In S. Halevi (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 5677, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2009: 29th Annual International Cryptology Conference (pp. 303-316). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03356-8

Published in journal form:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, A. A. (Year). Title of paper or poster. Title of conference, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Murray, D. B., Beckmann, M., & Kitano, H. (2006). Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(7), 2241-2246. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0606677104

Online Abstract:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper [Conference presentation abstract]. Conference Name, Location. http://xxxxxx

Lopez, K. (2012, October). An integrative approach to tribal policies in northwest tribes. [Conference presentation abstract]. OPHA Annual Conference and Meeting, Corvallis, OR, United States. http://www.oregonpublichealth.org/assets/2012_Conference/2012%20opha%20abstracts.pdf

Notes
  • Conference proceedings are often published in book or periodical form.
  • Cite papers from a book using the same format as for a book or book chapter. If the editor's name is given, insert the name after the word "In".
  • If online include a DOI or URL.
  • Cite proceedings that are published regularly using the same format as for a journal. If online include a DOI or URL, as you would for an online journal article.
  • For papers that have not been formally published, include both the year and the month of the symposium/conference, for example: (2009, May).
  • Capitalise the name of symposium, which is a proper noun.
  • See also APA Style Conference Presentation References.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 332-333; 317; 321).

Reference List

Lecture Notes

Print

Lecturer, A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [Format]. Publisher.

Emmerling, M. (2011). BIO1OF, Lecture 5, Topic 2, Cell Structures Pt. 1 Membranes Diffusion and Osmosis  [PowerPoint slides]. Department of Botany, La Trobe University.

Online

Lecturer, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [Format]. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Emmerling, M. (2011). BIO1OF, Lecture 5, Topic 2: Cell Structures Pt. 1 Membranes Diffusion and Osmosis  [PowerPoint slides]. Department of Botany, La Trobe University, LMS https://lms.latrobe.edu.au

Course Book

School Name, Institution Name. (Year). Title of subject (Subject code). Publisher.

School of Health Sciences, La Trobe University. (2010). Social work practice in communities, semester 2 (SWP31COM).

Notes
  • The course coordinator is usually the author, unless otherwise noted.
  • Titles appear in full (including any sub-title), and in italics.
  • Capitalise the first words of title and sub-title, along with any proper nouns.
  • Add a description after the title, such as [PowerPoint slides], [Lecture notes].
  • If the lecture notes has no title, put a description in square brackets [Cell structures part 1 lecture notes]
  • Course notes are treated in a similar style to books.
  • If the author is unknown, move the title to the author position, then include the year of publication.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 347), APA Style PowerPoint Slide or Lecture Note References.

Reference List

Data set - Online:

Author, A. A. or Group. (Year). Title of data set (Version details) [Description of format or type]. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. http://pewhispanic.org/datasets

Data set with DOI:

Author, A. A. or Group. (Year). Title of data set (Version details) [Description of format or type]. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Memar, O. & Caughlin, B. (2018). The benefits of green tea in dermatology [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.1478221

Notes
  • For an untitled data set, describe the data set in square brackets.
  • Include the version in brackets after the title.
  • Omit the publisher if it is the same as the author.
  • Include a retrieval date if the data set is likely to change over time.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 337-338); APA Style Data Set References.

Reference List

Author. (Date). Title of entry. In Title of work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https:xxxxxx

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Panadol. In MIMS online. Retrieved September 3, 2018, from https://www.mimsonline.com.au

Australian Medicines Handbook. (2018). Insulins. In Australian medicines handbook. https://amhonline.amh.net.au/chapters/endocrine-drugs/drugs-diabetes/other-drugs-diabetes/insulins

Notes
  • n.d. (no date) is used for online encyclopaedias where the content is continuously updated.
  • Use the URL of the specific page (note: URL shorteners are acceptable, if stable).
  • If the information is constantly being updated, include a retrieval date.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 328, examples 47 and 48).

Reference List

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. (Year). Title (xx ed.) [Kit]. Publisher.

Hammill, D. D., Brown, V. L., Larsen, S. C., & Lee, J. (2007). TOAL-4: Test of adolescent and adult language: Assessing linguistic aspects of listening, speaking, reading and writing (4th ed.) [Kit]. Pro-Ed.

Notes
  • Provide non-routine information such as, information that is important for identification or retrieval, in square brackets directly after the title.
  • Capitalise the first letter of the notation (e.g., [Kit]).

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 341-344).

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Publisher.

Department of Health. (2012).  Staying healthy in the heat [Brochure]. Victorian Government.

Online

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Publisher. http://xxxxxx

Department of Health. (2012). Staying healthy in the heat [Brochure]. Victorian Government. http://www.health.vic.gov.au/environment/downloads/heatwave_information_brochure.pdf

Notes
  • Follow the same format as report references.
  • See also the Reports - technical and other tab in this box.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 329-331). APA Style Brochure References.

In-text referencing

J. Saul (personal communication, February 23, 2010)

OR

(S. Harrison, personal communication, September 6, 2004)

Notes
  • Personal communications can include letters, emails, telephone conversations, interviews, unrecorded classroom lectures, live speeches etc.
  • Since the information is not recoverable, personal communications should not be included in the Reference List. Cite them in-text only.
  • Provide the initials of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.
  • Some personal communications are recoverable and may be in the personal possession of an author, stored in an archive or institutional collection.  Only use a personal communication citation when a recoverable source is not available.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 260-261).

Reference List

Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of report (report number). Publisher. https://xxxxxx or https://doi.org/xxxxxx

International Atomic Energy Agency. (2008). Ingestion of toxic materials (IAEA report No. 23). http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:2005981

Poulton, P., Meier, E., & Horan, H. (2020). Determining crop productivity potential for the Pilbara: Opportunities from irrigated agriculture in intensive beef feeding systems. CSIRO. https://doi.org/10.25919/5ed944ba5b235

Notes
  • Technical reports, reports from a taskforce, reports by individuals at a government agency or other organisations, policy briefs, issues papers are all part of a group known as grey literature. You should also look under Government Publications and Internet materials to find other examples.
  • If applicable, the report number should follow the title in parenthesis.
  • If retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement, unless the publisher has been identified as the author. 

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 329-331).

In-text referencing

As the cultural critic Norman Klein stated in 1997, the Romantics "gloried in the ruins of memory" (as cited in Cameron, 2008, p. 83).

or

(Klein, 1997, as cited in Cameron, 2008)

Reference List

Cameron, A. (2008). Modular narratives in contemporary cinema. Palgrave Macmillan.

Notes
  • Use secondary sources only when you cannot retrieve a copy of the original source.
  • If the year of the original source is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation.
  • List the secondary source in the Reference List; in the text of your essay include the original work that you have used and provide a citation for the secondary source.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 258); APA Style Secondary Sources.

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes.
See also: Direct quotation of material without page numbers.

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation): The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)

 

  • One author: Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)

 

  • Two authors: Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)

 

  • Three or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)

 

  • Group / corporate author: La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

 

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing:
You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).