• The author(s) name(s) should be written as: Surname (year, page number) or (Surname, year, page number) for a direct quote.
• Cite the names of the authors in the order they appear.
• Do not include suffixes, e.g. Dr or Jr.
• For foreign names, capitalise and spell the name just as it appears in the article you're citing. If the surname starts with a lower case letter, use that form in-text and keep the author's original capitalisation even in the reference list entry.
• For group authors, abbreviations are acceptable, as long as it is easily recognisable in the reference list.
• For authors with the same surname, include the first author’s initials in all text citations to differentiate even if the publication year is different, e.g. (E.M. Smith & Jones, 2018), (P. Smith, 2020).
• For works with multiple authors, where the first names of the authors are the same, write out as many names as needed to differentiate the references before using et.al. Do not use et.al for one remaining author. (See section 8.18 for more information)
• If a work has no identifiable author, cite in-text the title and the year. Use double quotes around the title of an article or chapter e.g. (“Study finds, ” 2007) or if it is a book place the title in italics, e.g. (Science for Dummies, 2008).
• For works where the author is “Anonymous,” use it in the in-text citation e.g. (Anonymous, 1998).
• When citing 2 or more works by the same author in the one instance, arrange the in-text citation by year of publication and only write the author’s name once e.g. (Smith, 2002, 2004).
• When citing 2 or more works by different authors in the one instance, arrange the in-text citation in the order as given in the reference list e.g. (Adams, 2004; Smith, 2004).
• To format the subsequent citations by the same author or group of authors, consult Table 1.
Basic In-Text Citation Styles
|Type of citation||First citation in text||Subsequent citations in text||Parenthetical format, first citation in text||Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text|
|One work by one author||Walker (2007)||Walker (2007)||(Walker, 2007)||(Walker, 2007)|
|One work by two authors||Walker and Allen (2004)||Walker and Allen (2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)|
|One work by three authors or more||Bradley et al. (1999)||Bradley et al. (1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)|
|Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 2003)||NIMH (2003)||(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)||(NIMH, 2003)|
|Groups (no abbreviation) as authors||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)|
Note. Adapted from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 266), by American Psychological Association, 2020.
• If an article has up to and including 20 authors, include all authors in the reference list. When the authors number 21 or more, include the first 19 authors’ names, then 3 ellipisis points (…) then add the last author’s name.
• If the reference list includes different authors with the same surname and first initial, the authors’ full names may be given in brackets.
• Janet, P. [Paul]. (1983) ………… in-text (Paul Janet, 1983)
• Janet, P. [Pierre] (1895)………... in-text (Pierre Janet, 1895)
• For works by the same author and year, arrange them alphabetically by surname and then by title. Add the suffixes a, b, c, etc. to the publication year and refer to these in the in-text citation., e.g. Elkind (2007b) or (Elkind, 2007a), etc.
• When citing multiple works by the same author and there is an in-press title, place the in-press title last.
• An editor is treated like a regular author, but with (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the name(s). For 2 or more editors, only include (Eds.) once, after the last editor’s name.
Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. pp. 266-268, 285-288).
• Provide author, year and specific page.
• If the quote is fewer than 40 words incorporate into text and enclose in quotation marks.
• Daley and Robinton (2012) stated, “These features influence the utility of each of these cell types for disease modelling and therapeutics, and offer predictions for the evolution of the art of reprogramming somatic cells” (p.295).
• If the quote is over 40 words, display as a free standing block. Do not use quotation marks and indent the entire quote starting on a new line.
In this Review, we describe the derivation of iPS cells, outline the functional assessments of pluripotency, and then recount how global assessments of gene expression, gene copy number variation, DNA methylation and chromatin modification provide a more nuanced comparison of iPS cells and ES cells. We detail how these features influence the utility of each of these cell types for disease modelling and therapeutics, and offer predictions for the evolution of the art of reprogramming somatic cells. (Daley & Robinton, 2012, p. 295)
• For additional paragraphs of a direct quote, further indent the first line of the second paragraph.
We detail how these features influence the utility of each of these cell types for disease modelling and therapeutics, and offer predictions for the evolution of the art of reprogramming somatic cells.
The years since Takahashi and Yamanaka's breakthrough have seen a flood of papers touting advances in reprogramming technology, including alternative methods for reprogramming and the successful derivation of iPS cells from various cell types. Although the field has advanced at a breathtaking pace, investigators have recently taken a step back to more critically evaluate iPS cells relative to ES cells and have endeavoured to fully understand how these cell populations differ from one another in the hope of closing the gap between the two populations. (Daley & Robinton, 2012, p. 295)
• See APA Style Quotations for more information.
Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. pp. 270-277); APA Style Quotations.
• Use past tense when citing someone else's work.
• For in-text referencing use author and date.
• Even though it is not required to provide page or paragraph numbers when paraphrasing, you may include them if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text, e.g.
Authors tend to publish their research via conference papers first, before reworking the paper for journal publication (Wainer & Valle, 2013, p. 7).
Wainer and Valle (2013, p. 7) argued that it is usual that authors publish in a conference first, then extend their article, and seek appropriate journal publication.
• See APA Style Paraphrasing for more information.
Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. pp. 269-270); APA Style Paraphrasing.
- Normal APA style referencing rules apply.
- If you are reproducing an image / figure or table, provide a caption / copyright statement at the bottom of the slide in which the figure or table appears (in smaller font) - see Images for more information.
For more information on how format your presentation:
La Trobe University. (2020). Presentations. Achieve@Uni. http://latrobe.libguides.com/presentations
Lexis, L. & Julien, B. (2017). Communicating scientific discoveries to peers. In How to do science: A guide to researching human physiology (pp. 125-134). La Trobe eBureau. https://library.latrobe.edu.au/ebureau/ebook.html#howtodoscience
Nicol, A. A. M. & Pexman, P. M. (2010). Visuals for presentations. In Display your findings: A practical guide for creating figures, posters and presentations (pp. 177-184). American Psychological Assocation.
- Normal APA style referencing rules apply however, should be followed "as much as possible" for images / figures and tables (Nicol & Pexman, 2010, p. 172) - see Images for more information.
For more information on how to format your poster:
La Trobe University. (2020). Writing: Health sciences. Achieve@Uni. http://latrobe.libguides.com/writing/health-sciences
Lexis, L. & Julien, B. (2017). Communicating scientific discoveries to peers. In How to do science: A guide to researching human physiology (pp.125-134). La Trobe eBureau. https://library.latrobe.edu.au/ebureau/ebook.html#howtodoscience
Nicol, A. A. M. & Pexman, P. M. (2010). Posters. In Displaying your findings: A practical guide for creating figures, posters and presentations (pp. 103-176). American Psychological Association.
• Leave out unnecessary details from the publisher’s name, such as Co., Pty., Inc., LLC or the word Publishers. Keep the words Books and Press if they are part of the publisher’s name.
• Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons, e.g. Cambridge University Press; Springer Publishing Company.
• If the author is also the publisher, omit the publisher from the reference.
• Always place a full stop after the publisher, followed by the DOI or URL (as applicable).
• The publication date is always enclosed in parentheses with the exception of archival sources where the exact date is not known; cite these sources as [ca. date] to indicate circa, using square brackets. If no date can be found write (n.d.). meaning ‘no date’. Always place a full stop after the date.
• When a resource has two dates (e.g. an electronic version of a republished book) - use both dates in the in-text reference, e.g. Russell (1948/2009). In the reference list entry, use the date of the version you have viewed and add when the original work was published at the end, e.g.
Russell, B. (2009). Human knowledge: Its scope and limits. Taylor & Francis. (Original work published 1948).
Place of Publication
• Publisher locations are not included in APA 7 style references for books and book chapters.
• For works associated with a specific location (e.g. conference sessions and presentations) provide the city, state, province, or territory, and country, e.g. Sydney, NSW, Australia.
• For official U.S. state abbreviations: http://pe.usps.com/text/pub28/28apb.htm
Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. pp. 293-301).
Abbreviations in APA 7
|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|Rev. ed.||revised edition|
|2nd ed.||second edition|
|Ed. (Eds.)||editor (editors)|
|Narr. (Narrs.)||narrator (narrators)|
|p. (pp.)||page (pages)|
|Vol. (Vols.)||volume (volumes)|
|para. (paras.)||paragraph (paragraphs)|
|Tech. Rep.||technical report|
|DOI||digital object identifier|
Note. Adapted from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 306-307), by American Psychological Association, 2020.
For official U.S. state abbreviations: http://pe.usps.com/text/pub28/28apb.htm
Books, theses or reports
• Any additional information goes in parentheses after the title, e.g. edition, report or volume number. This information is not written in italics.
• If a volume is part of a larger, separately titled series, treat the series and volume titles as a two-part title.
• Always place a full stop at the end of the title (after any information in parentheses).
Journal or newspaper titles
• Use title case capitalisation for journal and newspaper titles, i.e. use the full title of the journal and capitalise all major words. If it uses a combination of cases and symbols e.g. ReCALL or Travel & Leisure keep the form used by the journal. The title should be written in italics.
• Always place a full stop at the end of the title.
Journal article, newspaper article or chapter titles
• Use sentence case capitalisation - only the first word of the title (and subtitle) should be capitalised. Proper nouns should also be capitalised. Do not italicise the title or place quotation marks around it.
• Always place a full stop at the end of the title.
More information on when to capitalise
American Psychological Association (2020). Proper nouns. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/capitalization/proper-nouns
American Psychological Association (2020). Diseases, disorders, therapies, and more. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/capitalization/diseases-disorders-therapies
American Psychological Association (2020). Title case capitalization. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/capitalization/title-case
American Psychological Association (2020). Sentence case capitalization. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/capitalization/sentence-case
Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. pp. 291-293).
- Use a legible and widely available font such as Times or Times New Roman (12 point), Calibri (11 point) or Arial (11 point).
- Use the same font throughout the paper with exceptions for figures, computer code and footnotes.
- See APA Style Fonts for more information.
- Place page numbers in the top right hand corner.
- 2.54 cm at the top, bottom, left-hand, and right-hand sides of the page.
- Double-line spacing (do not insert extra lines between paragraphs or the references list entries).
- Exceptions: tables, figures, footnotes and displayed equations.
- See APA Style Line Spacing for more information.
- Use one space after all punctuation except
- certain periods within abbreviations, quotations or parentheses (e.g., p.m.; "et al., 2014")
- colons in ratios (10:1)
- Indent the first line of each paragraph (using the tab key or paragraph tool).
- Exceptions: abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, table titles and notes.
- See APA Style Paragraph Indent for more information.
- The reference list starts on a new page - the word "References" should be bold and centered on the page.
- Listed alphabetically by author name.
- Should be double-spaced (within and between entries)
- Apply the hanging indent for the second and subsequent lines of a reference.
Hughes, F. (2008). Leadership in mental health nursing. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46, 8-9. http://www.healio.com/psychiatry/journals/jpn
Justification of text
- All text, except headings, needs to be aligned to the left, not justified.
- Begin each appendix on a separate page.
- For one appendix, label it Appendix. For more than one appendix, each must be labelled with a letter (e.g. Appendix A, Appendix B etc.) according to the order it appears in the text of the paper.
- Place the label and title of each appendix on separate lines at the top of the page, centred (in bold), using title case capitalisation. Label first, title second.
- If your appendices use information from an outside source, cite it within the text of the appendix and include the reference in the main reference list for the paper.
Order of assignment paper
Student papers generally include a title page, text, and references. There may be additional elements such as tables and figures and appendices depending on the assignment. Student papers generally do not include an abstract - but it may be requested. Students should read any assessment instructions thoroughly.
In APA style the order of the pages in a paper is as follows:
- title page
For more information about the stylistic aspects of using APA, such as where to place page numbers and when to use italics, consult
American Psychological Association (2020). Paper elements and format. In Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. pp. 29-67). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000 (located in the Library)
American Psychological Association (2020). Style and grammar guidelines. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/
American Psychological Association (2020). Sample papers. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/sample-papers
Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed. pp. 29-67).
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349
Australian Council for Educational Research. (2010). Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes. http://ausse.acer.edu.au/images/docs/AUSSE_2009_Student_Engagement_Report.pdf
Blackberry's PlayBook tablet makes a surprise appearance on stage. (2010, November 2). The Australian, p. 43.
De Bellis, M. D., Narasimhan, A., Thatcher, D. L., Keshavan, M. S., Soloff, P., & Clark, D. B. (2005). Prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and cerebellar volumes in adolescent and young adults with adolescent onset-alcohol use disorders and comorbid mental disorders. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 1590-1600. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000179368.87886.76
Deci, E. L. (2014). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry. Science Education, 84, 740-756. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-237X
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (n.d.-a). Motivation and education. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/motivation-and-education/
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (n.d.-b). Research information in nurses’ clinical decision-making. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.acn.edu.au/education
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Self-determination theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 416-437). Sage.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (in press-a). Infusing PDA technology into nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (in press-b). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality.
de Visser, R. O., Hart, A., Abraham, C., Memon, A., Graber, R., & Scanlon, T. (2014). Which alcohol control strategies do young people think are effective? Drug and Alcohol Review, 33, 144-151. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12109
Elkind, D. (2007a). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon. Da Capo Lifelong.
Elkind, D. (2007b). The power of play: How spontaneous, imaginative activities lead to happier, healthier children. Da Capo Lifelong.
Focus changes for Louisiana in oil cleanup. (2010, November 3). The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/us/04berms.html
Gregoriou, G. N. (Ed.). (2006). Advances in risk management. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230625846
Le Messurier, M. (2010). Teaching tough kids: Simple and proven strategies for student success. Routledge.
The life of insects. (1979). Silver Burdett.
Merrill, C., & Daugherty, J. (2010). STEM education and leadership: A mathematics and science partnership approach. Journal of Technology Education, 21(2), 21-34. https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v21n2/pdf/merrill.pdf
Rudd, K. [@KRuddMP]. (2013, May 28). Talking to @BillGates re vaccinations & eliminating polio. Oz working with Gates Foundation on all these. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/MrKRudd/status/339201056472985600
Siegel, E. (2010, November 10). The physics of global warming. ScienceBlog. http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/the_physics_of_global_warming.php
For further help
American Psychological Association (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
American Psychological Association (2020). Style and grammar guidelines. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/
Academic Writer - database developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) to support writing and referencing skills in APA style.