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Reference List

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of work (x ed.). Publisher.

Wiegand, P. (2012). Oxford School Atlas. Oxford University Press.

Eales, S. (ed.). (2003). The Jacaranda atlas (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Include the DOI, if available, or a URL if the atlas is not from a database.
  • See Books for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 347).

Reference List

Google Maps. (n.d.). [Description of Map]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxxx

Google Maps. (n.d.). [Directions for driving from Ingolstadt, Germany, to Geneva, Switzerland]. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from

Google Maps. (n.d.). [Plenty Road Bundoora]. Retrieved June 6, 2018, from

  • Google Maps pages are created on the fly, therefore have no published date or formal title.  For date use “n.d.” and for the title, [describe the map].
  • Always include a retrieval date.
  • No scale needed for Google maps.
  • Use the Share link on Google maps to copy a more user friendly (shorter) URL.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 347).

Reference List

Author, A. A. or Group. (Year). Title of map. [Map]. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). Fiji physiography. [Map]. downloads/Fiji_Physiography.jpg/image.jpg

  • If no date appears on the item you are trying to reference, insert (n.d.) where you would normally give the year.
  • If the map does not have a title then provide an appropriate title that describes the map. Do not italicize the title. Enclose the title with square brackets to indicate that this is a description of the content, not a title.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 347).

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes.
See also: Direct quotation of material without page numbers, e.g. webpages, online videos.

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation): The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)


  • One author: Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)


  • Two authors: Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)


  • Three or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)


  • Group / corporate author: La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)


Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).