Internet Materials

Reference List

Individual  or corporate author

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. http://xxxxxx

World Health Organization. (2020, April 24). Malaria vaccine pilot in Africa one year on: new vaccine could boost Kenya’s malaria fight. https://www.afro.who.int/news/malaria-vaccine-pilot-africa-one-year-new-vaccine-could-boost-kenyas-malaria-fight

With a retrieval date

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of webpage. Website name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxxx

United States Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and World Population Clock. U. S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved April 27, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

Notes
  • If you use more than one webpage from the same website, create a new reference list entry for each one.
  • When the author name and the site name are the same, the site name can be left out of the source element.
  • If you discuss any website or page in general in the text (including but not limited to social media), it is sufficient to give the URL in the text the first time it is mentioned. No reference list entry is needed e.g. The Quality Improvement Agency website is a valuable resource (http://www.qia.org.uk/).
  • If headings are used cite the first few words of the heading and the number of the paragraph following to direct the reader e.g. (Regolith, 2010, "On the Earth", para. 6).
  • Include a retrieval date only if the source material is likely to change over time.
  • If there is no date on a webpage you can use (n.d.) in place of the date.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 350-352); APA Style Webpage on a Website References.

Reference List

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of article. https://xxxxxx or https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Australian Chamber or Commerce and Industry. (2019). Getting on with business 2019: Business policy priorities for the next federal government. https://www.australianchamber.com.au/publication_taxonomies/policy-publications/

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of report (Report no. 123). Publisher. https://xxxxxx or https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Thomson, S., De Bortoli, L., Underwood, C., & Schmid, M. (2020). PISA 2018: Financial literacy in Australia. Australian Council for Educational Research. https://research.acer.edu.au/ozpisa/48 

Notes
  • Documents from a website are those that you click on the website which open in another window and the end of the URL is usually .pdf. (general rule)
  • Some of these documents are 'articles' and some are 'reports' and some will be 'grey literature' - but the way you reference them is basically the same. It is sometimes helpful to put in a [square bracket] after the title and add the [Report no. 123], or [Issues Brief no. 123] etc if such a thing exists.
  • If the publisher is the same as the corporate author only include the corporate author - don't repeat the information the source field.
  • If information is missing (e.g. author, date, title) check the table that appears on the APA Style Notes section of this guide.
  • Include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 350-352); APA Style Webpage on a Website References.

Reference List

Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of report . Publisher. https://xxxxxx or https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Department of Education. (2019). 2018–19 Annual report: Opportunity through learning. https://docs.education.gov.au/node/53068

Notes
  • Some of these documents are 'articles' and some are 'reports' and some will be 'grey literature' - but the way you reference them is basically the same. It is sometimes helpful to put in a [square bracket] after the title and add the [Report no. 123], or [Issues Brief no. 123] etc if such a thing exists.
  • If the publisher is the same as the corporate author only include the corporate author - don't repeat the information the source field.
  • If information is missing (e.g. author, date, title) check the table that appears on the APA Style Notes section of this guide.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 329-331); APA Style Report by a Government Agency References; APA Style Report with Individual Authors References.

Reference List

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. or Name or group. (year). Title of report. Publisher name. https://doi.org/xxxxxx OR https://xxxxxxx

International Council for Nurses. (2012). The ICN Code of ethics for nurses. https://www.icn.ch/sites/default/files/inline-files/2012_ICN_Codeofethicsfornurses_%20eng.pdf

Notes
  • Some of these documents are 'articles' and some are 'reports' and some will be 'grey literature' - but the way you reference them is basically the same. It is sometimes helpful to put in a [square bracket] after the title and add the [Report no. 123], or [Issues Brief no. 123] etc if such a thing exists.
  • If the publisher is the same as the corporate author only include the corporate author - don't repeat the information the source field.
  • If information is missing (e.g. author, date, title) check the table that appears on the APA Style Notes section of this guide.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 329-331); APA Style Ethics Code References.

Reference List

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. or Name of group. (Year, Month Day). Title of grey literature [Press release]. Publisher name. https://doi.org/xxxxxx OR https://xxxxxx

Australian Medical Association. (2019, May 1).  Mental health must be a greater priority in this election [Press release]. https://ama.com.au/media/mental-health-must-be-greater-priority-election-campaign

Notes
  • Some of these documents are 'articles' and some are 'reports' and some will be 'grey literature' - but the way you reference them is basically the same. It is sometimes helpful to put in a [square bracket] after the title and add the [Report no. 123], or [Issues Brief no. 123] etc if such a thing exists.
  • If the publisher is the same as the corporate author only include the corporate author - don't repeat the information the source field.
  • If information is missing (e.g. author, date, title) check the table that appears on the APA Style Notes section of this guide.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 329-331); APA Style Press Release References.

Reference List
Twitter and Instagram

Author, A. A. [@username]. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Day or n.d.). Content of the post up to first 20 words [description of audiovisuals]. Social media site name. https://xxxxxx or Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxxx

Tweet

La Trobe University [@latrobe]. (2020, April 30). We have always been deeply committed to building a more equal, inclusive and sustainable world. The latest @THEworldunirank highlight our outstanding progress [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/latrobe/status/1253495145699442689

Twitter profile

La Trobe University [@latrobe]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved April 30, 2020, from https://twitter.com/latrobe

Instagram highlight

State Library of Victoria [library_vic]. (n.d.). The dome [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 16, 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/stories/highlights/18045538609176632/

Facebook and others

Author, A. A.  or Name of group or Name of Group [Username]. (Year, Month Day or n.d.). Content of the post up to first 20 words [description of audiovisuals]. Social media site name. https://xxxxxx or Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxxx

Facebook post

SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium  [@melbourneaquarium]. (2020, April 29). Penguin Lunch Time Back by popular demand! Join our cheeky and majestic penguins for lunch! [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/melbourneaquarium/videos/645042809678148/

Facebook page

Zoos Victoria [@zoosvictoria]. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved April 30, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/zoosvictoria/

Notes
  • If you discuss any website or page in general in a paper (including but not limited to social media), it is sufficient to give the URL in the text the first time it is mentioned. No reference list entry is needed e.g. Newspapers like The Age provide up to the minute news coverage every day on their website (http://www.theage.com.au/) and Twitter account (https://twitter.com/theage).
  • If you paraphrase or quote specific information from social media but your readership will be unable to access the content (e.g., because of friends-only privacy settings or because the exchange occurred in a private message), cite the content as a personal communication.
  • Use this category for original social media content only - if you have discovered content via social media link directly to the content - its not important that your found it via social media channel.
  • Can contain text, text and audiovisual or just audiovisual - use square brackets [ ] to describe what type.
  • Do not change capitalisation or spelling of  social media entry. You can retain hashtags, links and replicate emojis if possible - square bracket with description of it, if you cant.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 348-350); APA Style Social Media.

Reference List

Surname, Initial. [Screen name/username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Streaming platform. https://xxxxxx

La Trobe University Library. (2010, February 9). Why can't I just Google? [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bp-ZGFd5o5A

Zoos Victoria. (2020, April 30). The snow leopard cubs have been named [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7sdvQwCzW0

Notes
  • The author of the video is the person or group who posted it and not necessarily the creator of the video.
  • Use an individual's real name as author, if available. Otherwise use their screen name or username.
  • When available, include both the author's real name and username.
  • Capitalise the screen name or username as it appears online.
  • In text, reference by the author name that appears outside the brackets.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 341-344), APA Style: YouTube Video References.

Reference List

Author, A. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of entry. Blog name. http://xxxxxx

Edwards, A. (2020, April 24). Summer snapshot of the Great Barrier Reef. CSIROscope. https://blog.csiro.au/great-barrier-reef-summer-snapshot/

Notes
  • If the author uses a screen name or nickname to post under this is used e.g. Data-Boy (2010).
  • If the author's full name is available, list the surname first followed by initials.
  • The title is not italicised, because it is a small part of a larger work. Include the name of the larger work (i.e., the list/forum/blog) if it is not part of the URL of your source.
  • Where page numbers are not provided give the paragraph number using the abbreviation para.
  • If headings are used cite the first few words of the heading and the number of the paragraph following to direct the reader e.g. (Regolith, 2010, "On the Earth", para. 6).

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 320); APA Style Blog Post and Blog Comment References.

Reference List

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Comment title or up to first 20 words of the comment [Comment on the article "blah blah"]. Blog name. http://xxxxxx

Byrne, R. (2020, April 28). I live in a 1930s house and every room has external vents so the hot air goes out through these [Comment on the article "Hot tips for a draught-proof house"]. CSIROscope. https://blog.csiro.au/draught-proof-house/

Notes
  • If the author uses a screen name or nickname to post under this is used e.g. Data-Boy (2010).
  • Link directly to the comment if possible.
  • The title is not italicised, because it is a small part of a larger work. Include the name of the larger work (i.e., the list/forum/blog) if it is not part of the URL of your source.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 320); APA Style Blog Post and Blog Comment References.

Reference List

Name of page or entry. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved Month Day, from http://xxxxxx

Regolith. (2020, April 12). Retrieved May 1, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regolith

Using archived version...

Name of page or entry. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia. http://xxxxxx

Regolith. (2020, April 12). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Regolith&oldid=950604647

Notes
  • These pages are subject to continual revision and editing so it's easiest to give a retrieval date and URL of the one you use.
  • However if possible you should use the archived version of the page - go into "view history" tab and get the archived version by going to the time and date of the version you used.
  • For example the archived version of 12 April 2020 (example above) has the following URL https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Regolith&oldid=950604647

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 329); APA Style Wikipedia Entry References.

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes.
See also: Direct quotation of material without page numbers.

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation): The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)

 

  • One author: Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)

 

  • Two authors: Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)

 

  • Three or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)

 

  • Group / corporate author: La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

 

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing:
You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).