Books

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Lawrence Erlbaum.

eBook, with DOI

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Seaton, K. A. (2018). Don't cheat yourself: Scenarios to clarify collusion confusion. La Trobe eBureau. https://doi.org/10.26826/1009

eBook, without DOI, from an academic (library) database

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Lawrence Erlbaum.

eBook, without DOI, with a non-database URL

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Firkins Nordstrom, J. (2020). Introduction to game theory: A discovery approach. Jennifer Firkins Nordstrom. https://nordstromjf.github.io/

Notes
  • If the book has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research (library) database, reference it as a print book.
  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks - it is optional to use the default display setting for hyperlinks (e.g. blue, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined, however links should be live if your assignment is to be read online.
  • If a DOI is not a hyperlink, you can create a link by copying and pasting the DOI to the end of https://doi.org/ e.g., https://doi.org/10.26826/1008
  • Do not add a full stop at the end of a URL or DOI.
  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons, e.g. Cambridge University Press; Springer Publishing Company.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 286-287, 321-325); APA Style Book References; APA Style How many names to include in an APA style reference.

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Grant, P. R., & Grant, B. R. (2008). How and why species multiply: The radiation of Darwin’s finches. Princeton University Press.

eBook, with DOI

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Resai-Kashkooli, R., & Leslie, C. (2019). The little cell who lost its way. La Trobe eBureau. https://doi.org/10.26826/1008

eBook, without DOI, from an academic (library) database

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

McGrath, L., & Reavey, P. (2018). The handbook of mental health and space: Community and clinical applications. Routledge.

eBook, without DOI, with a non-database URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Ball, C. E., & Loewe, D. M. (2017). Bad ideas about writing. West Virginia University. https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/bad-ideas-about-writing

Notes
  • Include all authors' names in the reference list.
  • List the authors' names in the order they appear.
  • If the book has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research (library) database, reference it as a print book.
  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks - it is optional to use the default display setting for hyperlinks (e.g. blue, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined, however links should be live if your assignment is to be read online.
  • If a DOI is not a hyperlink, you can create a link by copying and pasting the DOI to the end of https://doi.org/ e.g., https://doi.org/10.26826/1008
  • Do not add a full stop at the end of a URL or DOI.
  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons, e.g. Cambridge University Press; Springer Publishing Company.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 286-287, 321-325); APA Style Book References; APA Style How many names to include in an APA style reference.

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Fraser, J., Waters, D., Forster, E. M., & Brown, N. (2014). Paediatric nursing in Australia: Principles for practice. Cambridge University Press.

eBook, with DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Midford, S., James, S. & Hutchinson, G. (2018). Key concepts in the humanities and social sciences. La Trobe eBureau. http://doi.org/10.26826/1006

eBook, without DOI, from an academic (library) database

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Fraser, J., Waters, D., Forster, E. M., & Brown, N. (2014). Paediatric nursing in Australia: Principles for practice. Cambridge University Press.

eBook, without DOI, with a non-database URL

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Shook, B., Nelson, K., & Aguilera, K. (2019). Explorations: An open invitation to biological anthropology. American Anthropological Association. https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/explorations-an-open-invitation-to-biological-anthropology-shook

Notes
  • For 3 and up to 20 authors include all authors' names in the reference list.
  • List the authors' names in the order they appear.
  • If the book has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research (library) database, reference it as a print book.
  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks - it is optional to use the default display setting for hyperlinks (e.g. blue, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined, however links should be live if your assignment is to be read online.
  • If a DOI is not a hyperlink, you can create a link by copying and pasting the DOI to the end of https://doi.org/ e.g., https://doi.org/10.26826/1008
  • Do not add a full stop at the end of a URL or DOI.
  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons, e.g. Cambridge University Press; Springer Publishing Company.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 286-287, 321-325); APA Style Book References; APA Style How many names to include in an APA style reference.

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., … Author, U. U. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.


eBook, with DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., … Author, U. U. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx


eBook, without DOI, from an academic (library) database

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., … Author, U. U. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.


eBook, without DOI, with a non-database URL

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., … Author, U. U. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Notes
  • For 21 or more authors include the names of the first 19 authors, followed by three ellipses (...), then add the final author's name.
  • List the authors' names in the order they appear.
  • If the book has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research (library) database, reference it as a print book.
  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks - it is optional to use the default display setting for hyperlinks (e.g. blue, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined, however links should be live if your assignment is to be read online.
  • If a DOI is not a hyperlink, you can create a link by copying and pasting the DOI to the end of https://doi.org/ e.g., https://doi.org/10.26826/1008
  • Do not add a full stop at the end of a URL or DOI.
  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons, e.g. Cambridge University Press; Springer Publishing Company.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 286-287, 321-325); APA Style Book References; APA Style How many names to include in an APA style reference.

In-text

Direct quote (page number(s) must be included)

The Life of Insects (1979) found that "ant behaviour patterns assist with changes" (p. 23).

Paraphrasing or summarising (use of page number(s) encouraged - see notes)

Temperature has a major effect on insect control (The Life of Insects, 1979).

Reference List

Print

Title of work. (Year). Publisher.

The life of insects. (1979). Silver Burdett.

Notes
  • In cases where there is no author, the title is moved to the author position.
  • For in-text citations, use title case. (See section 8.14 for more information)
  • For the reference list, use sentence case. (See section 8.14 for more information)
  • If the book has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research (library) database, reference it as a print book.
  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks - it is optional to use the default display setting for hyperlinks (e.g. blue, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined, however links should be live if your assignment is to be read online.
  • If a DOI is not a hyperlink, you can create a link by copying and pasting the DOI to the end of https://doi.org/ e.g., https://doi.org/10.26826/1008
  • Do not add a full stop at the end of a URL or DOI.
  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons, e.g. Cambridge University Press; Springer Publishing Company.
  • You are required to use page or paragraph numbers for quotes.
  • Even though it is not required to provide page or paragraph numbers when paraphrasing, you may include them if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 289, 321-325); APA Style Book References.

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (x ed.). Publisher.

Stallings, W. (2014). Data and computer communications (10th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall. 

Notes
  • If there is no edition listed on the book, it is considered a first edition. There is no need to add an edition statement for a first edition
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 321-325); APA Style Book References.

Reference List

Print

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Boag, S. (Ed.). (2008). Personality down under: Perspectives from Australia. Nova Science.

Editor, A. A. & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Guzys, D., & Petrie, E. (Eds.). (2014). An introduction to community and primary health care. Cambridge University Press.

Notes
  • Treat the editor as you would an author. 
  • In the reference list, enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) or Editor and (Eds.) for Editors after he last editor's name.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 321-325); APA Style Book References.

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (Xed., pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher.

Higgs, J., McAllister, L., & Sefton, A. (2012). Communication in the health sciences. In J. Higgs, R. Ajjawi, L. McAllister, F. Trede, & S. Loftus (Eds.), Communicating in the health sciences (3rd ed., pp. 4-14). Oxford University Press.

Ryan, M. J. (2005). Evolution of behaviour. In J. Bolhuis & L. Giraldeau (Eds.), The behaviour of animals (pp. 294-314). Blackwell.

Notes
  • If the author wrote the entire book, then provide a reference for the whole book.
  • The author of the chapter is cited in the in-text reference.
  • For multiple authors of a chapter follow the same rules as for books with multiple authors.
  • The name of the book editor should be preceded by the word In.
  • Enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) for Editor and (Eds.) for Editors after the last editor's name.
  • For a book with no editor, include the word In before the book title.
  • For books that are a particular edition place the Edition statement in the bracket before the page numbers (see example above).
  • If citing an e-book chapter that does not have page numbers, omit that part of the reference.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 326-328); APA Style Edited Book Chapter References.

What is a compilation textbook?

A compilation textbook is collection of selected material taken from other authors. When citing this material in-text and in the reference list, you can cite as if you found their work in the original source. However, direct quotes that require page numbers in-text, need to be included from the compilation textbook (see below).

This is based on advice provided by APA Style experts.

In-text referencing Direct quote (page number(s) must be included from the compilation textbook rather than the original source. This is due to the reader/marker being able to identify where the information was cited in the compilation textbook.)

Lilienfeld et al. (2015) stated that “partial reinforcement may keep individuals 'hooked' in relationships that are not working” (p. 19).

Paraphrasing or summarising (use of page number(s) encouraged - see notes below)

A correlation has been established between partial reinforcement and subjects more likely to retain certain behaviours (Lilienfeld et al., 2015).
Reference List

Chapter from a compilation textbook (custom publication)

  • For subjects that use compilation textbooks (e.g., PHE1IDH – Individual Determinants of Health) cite the original authors both in text and in the reference list.
  • Students using the custom text Individual Determinants of Health and Human Behaviour, please be aware that the 2017 edition includes content from 11 different source titles. When referencing please look at the superscript letters (A, B etc.) added at the end of some paragraphs. These will take you to the footer of your book where you will find where the section starts and where it ends as well as the reference you need to use when working on your assignments.
  • Page number(s) identifying the chapter from within the original source must be included in the reference list.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (x ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher.

Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., Namy, L. L., Woolf, N. J., Jamieson, G., Marks, A., & Slaughter, V. (2015). Learning: How nurture changes us. In S. O. Lilienfeld, S. J. Lynn, L. L. Namy, N. J. Woolf (Eds.), Psychology: From inquiry to understanding (2nd ed., pp. 220–237). Pearson Australia.

Notes
  • In-text references - use the page number(s) from the compilation textbook.
  • Reference list - use the page number(s) from the original source following the guidelines in the textbook.
  • You will need to search for superscripts throughout all chapters when sighting the authors work.
Reference List

Translated book

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (B. B. Author & C. C. Author, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published in Year).

Laplace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814)

Book republished as an eBook (from an academic database with no DOI)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. (Original work published in Year).

Russell, B. (2009). Human knowledge: Its scope and limits. Taylor & Francis. (Original work published 1948)

Notes
  • When a date of publication is inapplicable, such as for an ancient text, cite the year of the translation you used, preceded by trans. e.g. (Aristotle, trans. 1931). Otherwise include the year of the version you used followed by version. e.g. (Plato, 1998 version).
  • When you know the original date of publication include it in the citation. e.g. Laplace (1814/1951).
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 323); APA Style Book References.

Reference List

Unpublished thesis or dissertation

Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Unpublished doctoral dissertation or Unpublished master’s thesis]. Name of Institution.

Venn, S. E. (2007). Plant recruitment across alpine summits in South-Eastern Australia [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. La Trobe University.

Thesis from an institutional repository or website

Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Institution]. Name of institutional repository or website. https://xxxxxx

Hanna, E. G. (2005). Environmental health and primary health care: Towards a new workforce model [Doctoral thesis, La Trobe University]. La Trobe University Research Online. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.9/438888

Thesis from a database (e.g. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Institution]. Name of database.

Murray, K. E. (2009). Sudanese in Australia: Renewal and hope (Publication No. 3364159) [Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Notes
  • Italicise the title.
  • Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis in square brackets after the title.
  • For a thesis from an institutional repository or a website, include the full URL.
  • For a thesis from a database, include the name of the database and the publication (accession or order) number i.e. UMI or AAT) of the document.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 333-334); APA Style Published Dissertation or Thesis References; APA Style Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis References.

Reference List

Print (or an eBook from a library database with no DOI)

Author, A. A. or Author, A. A. (Ed.) or Group Author. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Krebs, R. E. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of scientific principles, laws, and theories (Vol. 1). Greenwood Press.

With DOI

Author, A. A. or Author, A. A. (Ed.) or Group Author. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Bender, D. A. (2014). A dictionary of food and nutrition (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780191752391.001.0001

Without DOI, not archived

Author, A. A. or Editor, A. A. (Ed) or Group Author. (n.d). Title of work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxxx

Merriam-Webster. (n.d). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/

Without DOI, archived

Author, A. A. or Editor, A. A. (Ed) or Group Author. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Zalta, E.N. (Ed.). (2020). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2020 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2020/

Notes
  • Add volume or edition details in parentheses after the title, see example above.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 324).

Reference List

Print

Author, A. A. or Group Author. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (Vol. #, # ed. pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

Adhemar's ice age theory. (2008). In R. Krebs (Ed.), Encyclopedia of scientific principles, laws and theories (Vol. 1, p. 6). Greenwood Press.

Note: If there is no author, omit that part of the reference and move the title of the chapter or entry to the author's position.

With DOI

Author, A. A. or Group Author. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (# ed.). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxx

Hamilton, M. J., & Sadowsky, M. J. (2010). DNA profiling in ecology. In eLS. John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0005454.pub2

Note: If a work has no editor/s, omit that part of the reference and move the title next to the word In.

Without DOI, not archived

Author, A. A. or Group Author. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (# ed.). Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxxx

Merriam-Webster. (n.d). Alive. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved February 27, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/alive

Without DOI, archived

Author, A. A. or Group Author. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. (Year). In A. A. Author (Ed.). Title of work. Publisher. http://xxxxxx

Sennet, A. (2016). Ambiguity. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2016 ed.), Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2016/entries/ambiguity/

Notes
  • If there is no author, omit that part of the entry and move the title of the chapter or entry to the author's position in the reference (see Adhemar's ice age theory example).
  • For a reference work with no editor/s, include the word In before the book title (see Merriam-Webster and Hamilton & Sudowsky examples above).
  • Use a retrieval date when an online reference work is continuously updated and when the versions are not archived.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 328); APA Style Dictionary Entry References.

In-text referencing

Paraphrasing or summarising (use of page number(s) encouraged - see notes)

In his studies, Eysenck (2006, 2009) has indicated that...

Reference List

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Eysenck, M. W. (2006). Fundamentals of cognition. Psychology Press.

Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Fundamentals of psychology. Psychology Press.

Notes
  • When you include two or more works by the same author within the same parentheses, you should arrange the in-text references by year of publication. Give the authors' surname once and for each subsequent work give only the date e.g. (Smith, 2002, 2004).
  • In the reference list, arrange two or more works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) by year of publication (earliest first). Place in-press references last.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., pp. 304-305).

In-text referencing

Direct quote (page number(s) must be included)

Elkind (2007a) stated that "stress impairs children's ability to learn and teachers' ability to teach" (p. 16).

Paraphrasing or summarising

Elkind (2007a, 2007b) researched the impacts of stress on children's learning ability.
Reference List

Print

Author, A. A. (Yeara). Title of work. Publisher.

Elkind, D. (2007a). The hurried child: Growing up too fast too soon. Da Capo Lifelong.

Author, A. A. (Yearb). Title of work. Publisher.

Elkind, D. (2007b). The power of play: How spontaneous, imaginative activities lead to happier, healthier children. Da Capo Lifelong.

Notes
  • Reference list
    • For works by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) arrange the references in the reference list alphabetically by author and then alphabetically by title.
    • Suffixes a, b, c etc are then added to the publication year.  See examples above.
  • In-text references
    • Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,
      • Elkind (2007a) or (Elkind, 2007a).
      • Elkind (2007b) or (Elkind, 2007b).
    • When you include two or more works by the same author within the same parentheses, you should arrange the in-text references by year of publication. Give the authors' surname once and for each subsequent work give only the date.  For example,
      • Elkind (2007a, 2007b) or (Elkind, 2007a, 2007b).
    • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 305); APA Style Citing Works With the Same Author and Date.

Reference List

Audiobook

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (A. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. http://xxxxxx

Rowling, J.K. (2015), Harry Potter and the sorcerer's stone (J. Dale, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Pottermore Publishing. http://bit.ly/2TcHchx (Original work published 1997)

Notes
  • It is not necessary to note when you used an audiobook versus a book or an ebook when the content is the same, even if the format is different. However, do note that the work is audiobook in the title element when the content is different (e.g., abridged), if you want to note something special about the audiobook (e.g. the impact of the narration on the listener), or if you quote from the audiobook (see Section 8.28 APA7).
  • If the audiobook was released in a different year from the text version of the book, treat the work as republished.
  • See Style Notes for more information.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 323).

In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
You are required to use page numbers for quotes.
See also: Direct quotation of material without page numbers.

Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation): The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)

 

  • One author: Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)

 

  • Two authors: Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)

 

  • Three or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)

 

  • Group / corporate author: La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)

 

Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

Paraphrasing:
You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

Information Prominent

It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).