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In-text referencing

Direct Quotes:
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Author notes:

Include the surname/s of the author and year. For example,

  • No author (note capitalisation): The Life of Insects (1979) or (The Life of Insects, 1979)


  • One author: Seaton (2018) or (Seaton, 2018)


  • Two authors: Grant and Grant (2018) or (Grant & Grant, 2008)


  • Three or more authors: Fraser et al. (2014) or (Fraser et al., 2014)


  • Group / corporate author: La Trobe University (2018) or (La Trobe University, 2018)


Author Prominent

Larkin (2004) claims that Paine's writings "represented a turning point in the revolution" (p. 10).

Bakris et al. (2010) found this applied to "15 patients (4%) in the darusentan treatment" (p. 828)

Information Prominent

"Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success" (Larkin, 2004, p. 26)

It was found that "individuals can discriminate between members of their own and a closely related sympatric species on the basis of song and beak morphology" (Grant & Grant, 2008, p. 78).

You may include page numbers if it would help your reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.

Author Prominent

Benesch (2001) described the function of the rhetorical-grammatical process chart.

Chambers et al. (2013) state the benefit of working collaboratively.

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It was suggested that the packaging made a difference (Bakris et al., 2010).

International students are reporting higher levels than domestic students (Australian Council for Educational Research, 2010).